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Miguel David Ferrer, Pedro Tauler, Antoni Sureda, Pedro Pujol, Franchec Drobnic, Josep Antoni Tur and Antoni Pons

Soccer-associated oxidative stress has barely been studied. The aims of this study were to establish the effect of a soccer training match and the effect of a diet supplementation with a multivitamin complex and coenzyme Q during 3 months of soccer training on the pro-oxidant and antioxidant status of lymphocytes. In a randomized, double-blind trial, 19 male preprofessional soccer players were treated with either an antioxidant nutrient cocktail or placebo for 90 days. After this period the athletes played a soccer match lasting 60 min. All determinations were made under basal conditions before and after the training period and after the match. Basal lymphocyte hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production did not change after the 3 months of training. Catalase activity decreased (about 50%) after the 3 months, whereas glutathione reductase increased its activity (150–200%) both with placebo and in the supplemented group. Basal ascorbate levels were maintained during the training period, whereas α-tocopherol and MDA decreased (about 40%) in both groups. The match increased H2O2 production (180%) in both groups when the lymphocytes were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate, and it also increased MDA levels (150%). Antioxidant enzyme activities and antioxidant vitamin levels were maintained before and after the match. Regular soccer training modifies the lymphocyte strategy to eliminate ROS and increases protection against oxidative damage. A friendly soccer match raises lymphocyte capacity to produce ROS and oxidative damage, but it is not enough to induce a defensive response, thus leading to a situation of postexercise oxidative stress. Supplementation with low doses of antioxidant vitamins and coenzyme Q does not modify the endogenous antioxidant response to training.

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Antoni Sureda, Miguel D. Ferrer, Antonia Mestre, Josep A. Tur and Antoni Pons

The authors studied the effects of antioxidant diet supplementation with an almond-based beverage on neutrophil antioxidants, nitrite, and protein oxidative alterations after exercise. Fourteen trained male amateur runners were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive antioxidant supplementation (152 mg/d vitamin C and 50 mg/d vitamin E) or placebo using an almond-based beverage for 1 mo and participated in a half-marathon race. Blood samples were taken before and after the half-marathon and after 3 hr recovery. Supplementation significantly increased basal neutrophil vitamin C compared with placebo (p < .05). Exercise increased neutrophil vitamin E levels in the supplemented group and decreased vitamin C in both groups after recovery (p < .05). Neutrophil catalase and glutathione peroxidase gene expression and nitrite levels were significantly increased as result of exercise (p < .05). Nitrotyrosine and protein carbonyl derivates increased only in the placebo group after exercise (p < .05), and these values remained high at recovery. No significant differences were evidenced in caspase-3 activity and DNA damage. Antioxidant supplementation with vitamins C and E reduced the exercise-induced oxidation of proteins in neutrophils, without altering the antioxidant adaptive response, as evidenced by the increased catalase and glutathione peroxidase gene expression.

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Alfredo Córdova, Antoni Sureda, María L. Albina, Victoria Linares, Montse Bellés and Domènec J. Sánchez

The aim was to determine the levels and activities of the oxidative stress markers in erythrocytes, plasma, and urine after a flat cyclist stage. Eight voluntary male professional trained-cyclists participated in the study. Exercise significantly increased erythrocyte, leukocyte, platelet, and reticulocyte counts. The exercise induced significant increases in the erythrocyte activities of catalase (19.8%) and glutathione reductase (19.2%), while glutathione peroxidase activity decreased significantly (29.3%). Erythrocyte GSSG concentration was significantly increased after exercise (21.4%), whereas GSH was significantly diminished (20.4%). Erythrocyte malondialdehyde levels evidenced a significant decrease 3 h after finishing the stage (44.3%). Plasma malondialdehyde, GSH and GSSG levels significantly decreased after 3 hr recovery (26.8%, 48.6%, and 31.1%, respectively). The exercise significantly increased the F2-isoprostane concentration in urine from 359 ± 71 pg/mg creatinine to 686 ± 139 pg/mg creatinine. In conclusion, a flat cycling stage induced changes in oxidative stress markers in erythrocytes, plasma, and urine of professional cyclists. Urine F2-isoprostane is a more useful biomarker for assessing the effects of acute exercise than the traditional malondialdehyde measurement.

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Raquel Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel Pedrero-Chamizo, María del Mar Bibiloni, Gonzalo Palacios, Antoni Sureda, Agustín Meléndez-Ortega, Josep Antoni Tur Marí and Marcela González-Gross

Background:

As there is no gold-standard methodology to classify older people in relation to physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB), this paper aimed to propose a classification combining PA and SB.

Methods:

Within a broader study, 433 subjects, aged 55 years and older (57% females) from Madrid and Majorca, were evaluated for PA and SB by means of validated questionnaires. Physical fitness was analyzed objectively using the EXERNET test battery. Cluster analyses were used to establish behavioral patterns, combining PA and SB.

Results:

Males spent more time doing regular PA but less time walking and working at home than females (P < .001). Comparing the groups (inactive and high sedentary, inactive and low sedentary, active and high sedentary, and active and low sedentary), the worst aerobic endurance (P < .001) and lower body strength (P < .05) were obtained in males from both inactive groups. Agility was highest in the active and low sedentary group (P < .05). No significant differences were observed in females.

Conclusions:

The proposed classification is valid, as it classifies subjects according to their PA and SB, and outcomes are related to objectively measured fitness. It could facilitate the work of public health authorities, researchers, and physicians.