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Ashley Goodman and Kevin A. Zwetsloot

Context:

Exercise-associated muscle cramping (EAMC) is difficult to induce experimentally.

Purpose:

T o assess the reliability of a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) procedure for inducement of a muscle cramp.

Participants:

Seventy-four healthy and physically active participants (23 ± 8 years of age; 49 males and 25 females); 63 who had previously experienced EAMC.

Main Outcome Measure:

Each participant’s triceps surae musculature was placed in a shortened and unloaded position. Participants were instructed to maximally contract the triceps surae musculature with the intent to induce a cramp within 60 seconds.

Results:

Cramping was induced in 31% of participants within 60 seconds, and 97% of participants who experienced cramping during the initial session and who returned for two subsequent testing sessions at one-week intervals reproduced cramping with the procedure.

Conclusions:

The MVC procedure consistently induced cramping in a subset of 18 cramp-prone participants during multiple testing sessions, which suggests that it may have value as a screening tool for identification of athletes with a predisposition for EAMC.

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Ashley Goodman and William A. Pitney

Context:

Social support, autonomy, and job satisfaction are among the factors influencing female athletic trainers' decisions to remain in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (NCAA D-I) setting, but the male perspective has not been documented.

Objective:

Identify factors that affect male athletic trainers' decisions to remain in the NCAA D-I setting.

Design:

Qualitative study. Participants: 11 male athletictrainers who averaged 6 ± 6 years of NCAA D-I clinical experience, 66 ± 10 working hours per week during the traditional sport season, and 34 ± 5 years of age.

Data collection and analysis:

In-depth, semistructured interviews. Two researchers followed the steps of a grounded theory study and analyzed data independently.

Results:

Two main persistence themes emerged from the data: (1) D-I atmosphere and (2) workplace environment.

Conclusions:

Our findings suggest that male athletic trainers remain in the NCAA D-I setting because of satisfaction with their employment, which includes a competitive atmosphere, strong coworker relationships, and support from their supervisors.

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, William A. Pitney and Ashley Goodman

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Christianne M. Eason and Ashley Goodman

We examined coping behaviors of athletic trainers as characterized by hardiness, resiliency, and positive affectivity, and whether these individual-level factors relate to the career intentions of collegiate athletic trainers. A total of 423 (193 men, 230 women) athletic trainers employed in the NCAA setting completed our study. Women had statistically significant higher intention-to-leave scores than their male counterparts, and years of experience did not statistically impact intention-to-leave scores. Individuals with higher hardiness, positive affectivity, and resiliency scores had lower intention-to-leave scores. Athletic trainers who have higher coping behaviors are less likely to leave the profession.

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, William A. Pitney and Ashley Goodman

Edited by Jatin Ambegaonkar

Context:

Retention factors for athletic trainers (ATs) generally include autonomy, work-life balance, and job satisfaction, but little is known specifically about the position of Head AT.

Objective:

To investigate factors that influence retention of the Head AT in a leadership role.

Design:

A qualitative study that employed structured interviews.

Patients or Other Participants:

18 Head ATs (13 males, 5 females; 44 ± 8 years of age; 22 ± 7 years of experience in the role) participated.

Data Collection and Analysis:

Participants responded to a series of questions presented through an online interview. The data were analyzed through a general inductive approach.

Results:

Two key retention factors that were identified by the analysis were enjoyment of the work setting and professional motivation.

Conclusions:

Head ATs remain in their positions due to rewarding relationships with staff members and student-athletes. A commitment to lifelong learning for professional development also exerts a positive influence for retention.

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle and Ashley Goodman

Edited by Mary Barnum

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Monique Mokha, Stephanie M. Mazerolle, William Pitney and Ashley Goodman