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  • Author: Athanasios Chatzinikolaou x
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Theofanis Tzatzakis, Konstantinos Papanikolaou, Dimitrios Draganidis, Panagiotis Tsimeas, Savvas Kritikos, Athanasios Poulios, Vasiliki C. Laschou, Chariklia K. Deli, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Alexios Batrakoulis, Georgios Basdekis, Magni Mohr, Peter Krustrup, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas and Ioannis G. Fatouros

Purpose: To determine the recovery kinetics of performance, muscle damage, and neuromuscular fatigue following 2 speed-endurance production training (SEPT) protocols in soccer. Methods: Ten well-trained, male soccer athletes randomly completed 3 trials: work-to-rest ratio (SEPT) 1:5, SEPT/1:8, and a control trial. Training load during SEPT was monitored using global positioning system and heart-rate monitors. Performance (isokinetic strength of knee extensors and flexors, speed, and countermovement jump) and muscle damage (delayed-onset muscle soreness [DOMS] and creatine kinase) were evaluated at baseline and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h posttraining. Maximal voluntary contraction (fatigue index) of knee extensors and flexors was additionally assessed at 1, 2, and 3 h posttraining. Results: Fatigue increased (P < .05) in SEPT/1:5 (∼4–30%) for 3 h and in SEPT/1:8 (∼8–17%) for 2 h. Strength performance declined (P < .05) in both SEPT trials (∼5–20%) for 48 h. Speed decreased (∼4–18%; P < .05) for 72 h in SEPT/1:5 and for 48 h in SEPT/1:8. Countermovement-jump performance decreased (∼7–12%; P < .05) in both SEPT trials for 24 h. DOMS increased (P < .05) in SEPT/1:5 (∼2-fold) for 72 and in SEPT/1:8 (∼1- to 2-fold) for 48 h. Creatine kinase increased (∼1- to 2-fold, P < .05) in both SEPT trials for 72 h. Conclusions: SEPT induces short-term neuromuscular fatigue; provokes a prolonged deterioration of strength (48 h), speed (72 h), and jump performance (24 h); and is associated with a prolonged (72-h) rise of DOMS and creatine kinase. Time for recovery is reduced when longer work-to-rest ratios are applied. Fitness status may affect quality of SEPT and recovery kinetics.

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Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Konstantinos Michaloglou, Alexandra Avloniti, Diamanda Leontsini, Chariklia K. Deli, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Luis Gracia-Marco, Sotirios Arsenis, Ioannis Athanailidis, Dimitrios Draganidis, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas, Craig A. Williams and Ioannis G. Fatouros

Purpose: To investigate the effect of a complex, short-term strength/power training protocol on performance and body composition of elite early adolescent soccer players. Methods: Twenty-two players (14–15 y) were randomly assigned to (1) an experimental group (N = 12; participated in a 5-wk training protocol with traditional multijoint power resistance exercises, Olympic-style lifts, plyometric drills, and speed work; 4 times per week) or (2) a control group (N = 10). Strength and power performance (jumping, speed, change of direction, repeated sprint ability, endurance, isokinetic strength of knee flexors and extensors, maximal strength in various lifts, and speed-endurance) were evaluated pretraining and posttraining. Results: Cessation of training for 5 weeks in the control group induced a marked performance deterioration (∼5%–20%). Training not only prevented strength performance deterioration but also increased it (∼2%–30%). Endurance and repeated sprint ability declined to a smaller extent in experimental group compared with control group (15% vs 7.5%). Isometric strength and body composition remained unaltered in both groups. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that (1) young players exhibit a high level of trainability of their strength/power performance (but not endurance) in response to a short-term complex training protocol during early adolescence, (2) Olympic-style lifts are characterized by increased safety in this age group and appear to be highly effective, (3) lifts incorporating a hip thrust result in increased strength of both knee extensors and flexors, (4) cessation of training for only 5 weeks results in marked deterioration of strength/power and endurance performance, and (5) improvement of strength/power performance may be related to neural-based adaptation as body composition remained unaffected.