Context: Hamstring and quadriceps activity adaptations are well known in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLD) and reconstructed (ACLR) to potentially compensate for knee joint instability. However, few studies have explored hip muscles activity patterns after ACL injury. Objective: To examine the activation characteristics of gluteus medius (GMED) and adductor longus in ACLR and ACLD subjects compared with controls. Design: Case–control study. Setting: Athletic training room and university lab. Participants: Twelve healthy and 24 ACL-injured (12 ACLR and 12 ACLD) recreationally active male volunteers. Interventions: Surface electromyography of the GMED and adductor longus were recorded during a single-leg vertical drop landing and normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contractions. Main Outcome Measures: Preparatory and reactive muscle activity and coactivation were analyzed from 100 milliseconds prior to initial contact to 250 milliseconds postcontact. Results: During reactive activity, ACL-injured (ACLR and ACLD) participants demonstrated significantly lower peak GMED activity compared with controls (F = 4.33, P = .02). In addition, ACLR participants exhibited significantly lower reactive GMED:adductor longus coactivation muscle activity compared with controls (F = 4.09, P = .03). Conclusion: Our findings suggest neuromuscular adaptations of the hip musculature are present in people at least 2 years from ACL injury. GMED activation exercises should be considered in designing rehabilitation programs for ACL-injured individuals.
Komeil Dashti Rostami, Aynollah Naderi and Abbey Thomas
Aynollah Naderi, Fatemeh Shaabani, Hassan Gharayagh Zandi, Luís Calmeiro and Britton W. Brewer
The authors tested the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based program in reducing sport-injury incidence. A total of 168 young male elite soccer players were randomly assigned to mindfulness and control groups. The mindfulness group consisted of seven sessions based on the mindfulness-acceptance-commitment approach, while the control group consisted of seven presentations on sport-injury psychology. Athlete exposure and injury data were recorded during one season. State and trait mindfulness, sport anxiety, stress, and attention control of participants were assessed. Number of injuries, average of injuries per team, and days lost to injury in the mindfulness group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Mindfulness and attention control were lower and sport anxiety and stress were higher in injured players than in noninjured players. Psychological variables were associated with injury. Mindfulness training may reduce the injury risk of young soccer players due to improved mindfulness and attention control and reduced sport anxiety.