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B. Ann Boyce

This study investigated the effect of instructor-set performance goals on skill acquisition and retention of a selected shooting task. Utilizing a modified two-stage sampling technique, six classes (90 potential subjects) were assigned to one of two conditions: with instructor-set performance goals or without instructor-set performance goals. Subjects received a pretest trial, five skill acquisition trials, and a retention trial on a selected shooting task (kneeling). The results indicated that the performance-goal group was significantly more effective than the non-performance-goal group. There was a significant difference across trials. Further, there was a significant interaction effect, and when follow-up tests were applied the results indicated that the group who received the instructor-stated performance goals was significantly better than the non-performance-goal group during Trials 2-5 and the retention trials. The findings are related to how performance goals affect skill acquisition and retention.

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B. Ann Boyce

This study investigated the effect of three goal-setting conditions on skill acquisition and retention of a selected shooting task. Utilizing a two-stage random-sampling technique, nine classes (N=138 subjects) were assigned to one of three conditions: (a) assigned specific goals, (b) participant-set specific goals, and (c) generalized do-your-best goals. The pretest and five skill acquisition trials were analyzed in a 3×6 (Goal groups × Trials) MANOVA design with repeated measures on the last factor. The procedure for the retention trial resulted in a 3×1 (Goal groups × Trial) ANOVA design. Results indicated a significant groups-by-trials interaction. The follow-up analyses revealed that the two specific goal-setting groups (assigned and participant-set goals) were significantly superior to the do-your-best group during the second, fourth, fifth, and retention trials.

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B. Ann Boyce

The effects of three teaching styles (command, practice, and reciprocal) from Mosston’s Spectrum of Teaching Styles were investigated in terms of motor skill acquisition and retention of a selected shooting task. University students (N=135) enrolled in nine riflery classes were randomly assigned by class to one of three treatment groups. A 3×6 (Teaching styles × Sets of trials) ANCOVA, with repeated measures on the last factor and pretest performance as the covariate, revealed a significant group-by-trials interaction. Command and practice styles were significantly superior to the reciprocal style in terms of skill acquisition and retention. Discussion addresses not only previous research on Mosston’s styles but also the research in teacher effectiveness and selected motor-learning constructs.

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B. Ann Boyce

This field-based study investigated the effect of an instructional strategy with two schedules of augmented knowledge-of-performance (KP) feedback on skill acquisition of a selected shooting task. Students enrolled in university rifle classes (N=135) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) instructional strategy (IS) with KP feedback after every trial, (b) IS with summary KP feedback, and (c) no IS with no KP feedback. Data collection consisted of (a) a pretest phase (one set of five trials) and (b) an acquisition phase (four sets of five trials). Instructional integrity was maintained during data collection so that students were treated as class participants. The findings indicated that (a) the presence of the instructional strategy in conjunction with the two feedback schedules appeared to positively effect the overall shooting performance as compared to no strategy/no KP, (b) the effects of the two KP schedules did not statistically differ from one another, and (c) the significant effect for trials indicated that as shooting practice progressed subjects in all three conditions appeared to improve.

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B. Ann Boyce and G. Linda Rikard

The present study of Doctoral PETE programs provided an extensive description of demographic data which included: (a) doctoral program characteristics, (b) faculty, and (c) doctoral graduates. Several data sets from the academic years of 2005–06 and 2008–09 as well as selected summary data from 1996–97 through 2008–09 were used to make comparisons and identify emerging trends. The number of 23 doctoral programs (2008–09) has decreased slightly compared with the 24 programs in 2005–06. Information on faculty and doctoral student ethnicity revealed that doctoral graduates were more diverse than D-PETE faculty. Almost 90% of doctoral graduates enter positions in higher education. There was a slight increase in the number of doctoral students who matriculated over time. Lastly, our graduates including non U.S. graduates are extremely marketable because of the high demand for pedagogists in higher education.

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B. Ann Boyce and G. Linda Rikard

This study examined the supply and demand issues of D-PETE professionals in higher education. The three concerns addressed were: (a) doctoral graduates and their respective job placements in the academic years of 1996–97 through 2008–09, (b) an examination of two targeted academic years (2005–06 and 2008–09) to determine the supply of entry level doctoral candidates and experienced job seekers, and (c) the number of advertised positions in pedagogy and outcomes of those position searches. A general comparison of the two academic years revealed: over half of the positions were filled with both graduates and ABD pedagogists and a third of position searches failed. The following conclusions were made demand was greater than supply and ABD’s in D-PETE filled pedagogy positions. Lastly, the impact of these failed searches must be examined as it relates to the profession.

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B. Ann Boyce, Carolyn Lehr and Ted Baumgartner

The purpose of this study was to assess student perceptions on outcomes received from participation in specific physical education classes, and to compare these perceptions with those generated by a committee of experts. Five outcome statements were developed for each of three outcome areas (fitness, skill-performance, and artistic-creative). A questionnaire containing the 15 outcome statements was distributed to students enrolled in 27 activity courses (N = 660), which in turn were categorized into one of the three outcome areas. Using a 1-to-5 Likert scale, students responded to each statement with regard to perceived benefits from participation in their specific course. An overall grand mean was computed to determine if students perceived benefits from participating in those courses. Chi-square tests were calculated to determine if students and experts agreed on course placement in outcome areas. Results indicated that students perceived participation in physical education activities as being beneficial in accomplishing the 15 stated outcomes. There was agreement between students’ and experts’ perceptions regarding the designated outcome area for eight of the 15 outcome statements and disagreements for one statement. Overlapping between two or more outcome areas occurred with three statements, and three statements were generic to participation in physical education activities.

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B. Ann Boyce and Valerie K. Wayda

This study investigated the effect of three goal-setting conditions (self-set, assigned, and control) and two levels of self-motivation (medium and high) on the performance of females participating in 12 university weight training classes (N = 252). The subjects' levels of self-motivation were assessed via Dishman, Ickes, and Morgan's (1980) Self-Motivation Inventory (SMI). The baseline and performance trials were analyzed in a 3 × 2 × 10 (Goal Condition × Motivation Level × Trial) ANCOVA design, with repeated measures on the last factor and baseline as the covariate. A significant interaction of goal-setting groups and trials was found. Planned comparisons indicated that the assigned goal group was statistically superior to the control and to the self-set groups from Trial 3 through retention. In addition, the two goal-setting groups were statistically superior to the control group at the seventh through retention trials. The subjects' SMI levels were not found to moderate the effect of goal setting on performance.

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B. Ann Boyce and Sarah M. Bingham

The present study investigated the effect of three goal-setting groups (self-set, assigned, and control) and three levels of self-efficacy (low, medium, and high) on bowling performance of college students (N = 288). The performance/retention trials were analyzed in a 3 × 2 × 10 (Goal Conditions × Self-Efficacy Levels × Trials) ANCOVA design, with repeated measures on the last factor and baseline performance as the covariate. Results of the data analysis revealed a significant main effect for self-efficacy (SE) levels for males and females. Individuals at high and medium SE levels performed significantly better than those at a low SE level. The nonsignificant main effect for goal groups was attributed to the spontaneous goal-setting behavior of the control group. Finally, there was a main effect for trials and planned comparisons indicated that as trials progressed female students improved. Evidence of a performance plateau was present for male students, as they showed marginal improvement across trials.