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  • Author: Barbara Cusimano x
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Barbara Ewens Cusimano

This study investigated change in verbal teacher behavior due to a planned intervention on inservice training in self-assessment of audiotaped lessons and goal setting. The subjects were 15 elementary physical education teachers. A pretest-posttest control group experimental design was utilized. Verbal teacher behavior was assessed by event and duration recording. Change in verbal teacher behavior was analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance. Following intervention there was a statistically significant interaction for positive specific feedback, F(7) = .0015, p < .05, and corrective specific feedback, F(7) = .0417, p < .05. No statistically significant difference was evident for acceptance of students’ skill performance ideas. It appears that positive specific feedback and corrective specific feedback can be modified through the use of a planned intervention package including self-assessment and goal-setting.

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Hans van der Mars, Paul Darst, Bill Vogler and Barbara Cusimano

Active supervision patterns of 18 elementary physical educators were studied in relation to physical activity levels of 3 students per teacher (n = 54) during allotted fitness time. Activity level was measured using the system for observing fitness instruction time (SOFIT) activity categories. Results showed that during fitness instruction teachers spent over 90% of the time in peripheral areas of the gym, actively moved about (7.9 sector changes per minute), and provided augmented feedback to students (3.7 total rpm). Students’ most predominant activity levels were very active, standing, and walking, respectively. Students’ moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels averaged 51.9%. Higher percentages of peripheral positioning and demonstrating by teachers correlated with lower amounts of standing still and higher amounts of very active and MVPA behavior. Higher rates of corrective feedback correlated with higher levels of students’ walking and MVPA behavior.

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Hans van der Mars, Paul Darst, Bill Vogler and Barbara Cusimano

Supervision patterns of elementary physical educators were analyzed in relation to work involvement patterns of students in each teacher’s class. The supervision patterns analyzed included teacher location, rate of movement, and provision of verbal feedback. Work involvement by students was categorized into on-task, off-task, total motor engagement, and successful motor engagement (ALT-PE). Results showed that teachers spent more time along the periphery of the activity area, and that they were positioned more along the sides. They were active movers, averaging six sector changes per minute, and active in providing verbal feedback (3.2/min). Teacher feedback patterns did not correlate with teacher location/movement patterns. Teachers’ location (periphery) and movement correlated significantly with students’ total motor engagement. Teacher movement also correlated significantly with ALT-PE. Positive behavior feedback correlated with students’ on-task behaviors. Findings indicate that active supervision is important in maintaining students’ involvement with learning tasks in physical education.

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E. William Vogler, Hans Van der Mars, Barbara E. Cusimano and Paul Darst

Teaching effectiveness with elementary level mainstreamed and nondisabled children was analyzed from the perspective of teacher experience and expertise. There were three analyses: (a) experienced (12.6 yrs) versus less experienced (2.3 yrs) teachers, n=10 each, (b) expert (met 4 of 5 criteria) versus nonexpert (met no criteria) teachers, n=5 each, and (c) expert (met 4 of 5 criteria) versus experienced (no criteria, similar experience) teachers, n=4 each. Classes were matched on activities. Teaching effectiveness was evaluated by analysis of how the teacher allocated class time and how time was spent by the student. Specifically, motor appropriate, on- and off-task data were collected on one mainstreamed and one nondisabled student from each class. Results indicated that teacher behavior differed little as a function of either experience or expertise. Mainstreamed students were significantly less motor appropriate and more off-task than nondisabled students, and neither experience nor expertise significantly altered those differences. The results imply that greater teacher experience or expertise does not necessarily translate into improvements of teacher and student behavior, and simple placement of mainstreamed students with teachers with more experience or expertise may not necessarily be beneficial.

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E. William Vogler, Hans van der Mars, Paul Darst and Barbara Cusimano

Classroom processes were analyzed to study the effectiveness of main-streaming in physical education. Thirty teachers and 30 mainstreamed handicapped students were videotaped in elementary school P.E. classes. Data on their classroom behavior were coded using standard systematic ALT–PE “effective teaching” observation practices. There were many favorable classroom processes to indicate that mainstreaming was a good context for both handicapped and nonhandicapped students (e.g., comparable ALT–PE percentages and a more positive than negative interaction between teacher and student). Variables most predictive of ALT–PE were interruptions in class and whether a teacher was itinerant or not.

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Hans van der Mars, Paul W. Darst, E. William Vogler and Barbara Cusimano