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A systematic management program is often needed to control student behavior or elicit their optimum level of performance. One management system that is beginning to receive attention in physical education is the application of physical activity reinforcement (McKenzie, 1979; Siedentop, 1983). This system of reinforcement is defined as a systematic procedure in which a structured time to choose among various physical education activities is contingent on the individual’s meeting a predetermined criterion of behavior. The following discussion of the research conducted on program strategies and benefits utilizing physical activity reinforcement will enable practitioners to incorporate such a management system into their physical education program.
Barry Lavay and Peggy Lasko-McCarthey
To successfully conduct quality research, professionals in adapted physical activity (APA) must address a number of unique and challenging issues. These issues include difficulty in acquiring large and homogenous samples; developing valid, reliable, and commercially available test instruments and protocols specific to persons with disabilities; properly training doctoral students to conduct quality research; and maintaining a specific research focus. With regard to these issues, this paper provides the following recommendations: utilize alternative research designs; acquire adequate graduate research training; develop a research focus as an adapted physical activity researcher; and promote an interdisciplinary, collaborative research effort among professionals. Most important, through continued scholarly research adapted physical activity professionals will be able to expand the scientific body of knowledge.
Jim DePaepe, Ron French, and Barry Lavay
Burnout is a syndrome that has had a negative effect on the behavior of regular and special classroom teachers. The purpose of this investigation was to determine (a) whether special physical educators experience symptoms of burnout and (b) whether these symptoms fluctuate over time. Based on the results of this investigation, the subjects exhibited several symptoms that are related to the burnout phenomenon. Furthermore, these symptoms characteristically are high throughout the school year. It was concluded that special physical educator supervisors should design appropriate strategies to prevent or reduce these symptoms. Not only would this have a positive effect on teaching behavior but it would in turn improve student learning.
Marsha Cressler, Barry Lavay, and Mark Giese
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the test-retest reliability of four submaximum oxygen uptake (VO2) test protocols: (a) Modified Physical Working Capacity Cycle Ergometry, (b) Balke Ware Treadmill, (c) Canadian Step Test, and (d) Cooper Twelve-Minute Run/Walk in predicting the cardiovascular fitness of adults who were mentally retarded. The subjects worked in a sheltered workshop setting (N=17, M age=35 years, M IQ=54). The four submaximal VO2 tests were administered over eight sessions with test–retest reliability scores determined by administering each protocol separately and 1 week apart. An intraclass correlation coefficient revealed the following scores on each of the four protocols: Modified PWC Cycle Ergometry, R=.64; Balke Ware Treadmill, R=.93; Canadian Step Test, R=.95; Cooper Twelve-Minute Run/Walk, R=.81. Discussion includes considerations for administering predictor VO2 tests with persons who are mentally retarded. In this particular investigation the Balke Ware Treadmill Test (R=.93) and the Canadian Step Test (R=.95) revealed the highest reliability scores.