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Beau Kjerulf Greer, Kathleen M. Edsall and Anna E. Greer

The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test–retest reliability measures were significant (p < .01) and high for body fat percentage in both the LC and the CON groups (rs = .993 and .965, respectively). Likewise, skinfold analysis for body fat percentage reliability was high in both groups (rs = .996 and .997, respectively). There were significant differences between 1st and 2nd BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7–68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p < .05). However, there were no differences (p > .05) in BOD POD–determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.

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Anna E. Greer, Xuemei Sui, Andréa L. Maslow, Beau Kjerulf Greer and Steven N. Blair


To date, no longitudinal studies have examined the influence of sedentary behavior on metabolic syndrome development while accounting for cardiorespiratory fitness.

Purpose and Methods:

This prospective study examined the relationship between sedentary behavior and incident metabolic syndrome while considering the effects of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on the association among 930 men enrolled in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study.


A total of 124 men developed metabolic syndrome during 8974 person-years of exposure. After adjusting for covariates, men with middle and high sedentary behavior had 65% and 76% higher risks of developing metabolic syndrome, respectively, than men with low sedentary behavior (linear trend P = .011). This association remained significant after additional adjustment for activity status and cardiorespiratory fitness. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity were also inversely associated with metabolic syndrome, even after adjustment for sedentary behavior.


The findings highlight the importance of reducing sedentary behavior, increasing physical activity, and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for preventing metabolic syndrome.

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Beau Kjerulf Greer, John L. Woodard, Jim P. White, Eric M. Arguello and Emily M. Haymes

The purpose of this study was to determine whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation attenuates indirect indicators of muscle damage during endurance exercise as compared with an isocaloric, carbohydrate (CHO) beverage or a noncaloric placebo (PLAC) beverage. Nine untrained men performed three 90-min cycling bouts at 55% VO2peak. Subjects, blinded to beverage selection, ingested a total of 200 kcal of energy via the CHO or BCAA beverage before and at 60 min of exercise, or they drank the PLAC beverage. Creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), isokinetic leg-extension and fexion torque, and muscle soreness were assessed before and immediately, 4 h, 24 h, and 48 h post exercise. The trials were separated by 8 wk. CK activities were significantly lower after the BCAA trial than in the PLAC trial at 4, 24, and 48 h post exercise, as well as lower than the CHO beverage at 24 h post exercise. CK was lower in the CHO trial at the 24- and 48-h time points than in the PLAC trial. LDH activities were lower in the BCAA trial at 4 h than in the PLAC trial. As compared with the CHO and PLAC trials, ratings of perceived soreness were lower at 24 h post exercise, and leg-fexion torque was higher at the 48-h time point after the BCAA trial. The present data suggest that BCAA supplementation attenuates muscle damage during prolonged endurance exercise in untrained college-age men. CHO ingestion attenuates CK activities at 24 and 48 h post exercise as compared with a placebo beverage.