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Ben Schram, Wayne Hing and Mike Climstein

Purpose:

Stand-up paddle boarding (SUP) is a rapidly growing sport and recreational activity for which only anecdotal evidence exists on its proposed health, fitness, and injury-rehabilitation benefits. Participants: 10 internationally and nationally ranked elite SUP athletes.

Methods:

Participants were assessed for their maximal aerobic power on an ergometer in a laboratory and compared with other water-based athletes. Field-based assessments were subsequently performed using a portable gas-analysis system, and a correlation between the 2 measures was performed.

Results:

Maximal aerobic power (relative) was significantly higher (P = .037) when measured in the field with a portable gas-analysis system (45.48 ± 6.96 mL · kg−1 · min−1) than with laboratory-based metabolic-cart measurements (43.20 ± 6.67 mL · kg−1 · min−1). There was a strong, positive correlation (r = .907) between laboratory and field maximal aerobic power results. Significantly higher (P = .000) measures of SUP paddling speed were found in the field than with the laboratory ergometer (+42.39%). There were no significant differences in maximal heart rate between the laboratory and field settings (P = .576).

Conclusion:

The results demonstrate the maximal aerobic power representative of internationally and nationally ranked SUP athletes and show that SUP athletes can be assessed for maximal aerobic power in the laboratory with high correlation to field-based measures. The field-based portable gas-analysis unit has a tendency to consistently measure higher oxygen consumption. Elite SUP athletes display aerobic power outputs similar to those of other upper-limb-dominant elite water-based athletes (surfing, dragon-boat racing, and canoeing).

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Flinn Shiel, Carl Persson, Vini Simas, James Furness, Mike Climstein, Rod Pope and Ben Schram

The Nana positioning protocol is widely used to position participants to minimize technical error when undertaking body composition scanning and analysis with a Dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine. Once biological and technical errors are accounted for, the only variation in test–retest results is from statistical fluctuation or machine error. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the test–retest reliability of the Nana positioning protocol and establish the smallest real difference percentage (SRD%). A gender-balanced group of 30 participants (15 males, 15 females) underwent two scans in succession using the Nana positioning protocol, with repositioning between scans. Percentage change in mean with typical error, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), and standard error measurement percentage (SEM%) were used to identify the test–retest reliability and error rate of these protocols. Additionally, SRD% was calculated to assess the point at which clinically important changes occurred in a participant. The reliabilities of the whole body and regional scans were excellent. Percentage change in mean ranged between 0.00% and 0.23%. High reproducibility of the Nana positioning protocol was evident through an ICC ranging between 0.966–1.000. Additionally, typical error, SEM%, and SRD% were all low. Interestingly, fat mass was associated with the largest fluctuations observed to be associated with any of the parameters assessed. When all sources of biological and technical errors have been accounted for, the Nana positioning protocol has excellent test–retest reliability and produces low SEM% and SRD%.