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  • Author: Benjamin D. Roewer x
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Constantine P. Nicolozakes, Daniel K. Schneider, Benjamin D. Roewer, James R. Borchers and Timothy E. Hewett

Context: The functional movement screen (FMS™) is used to identify movement asymmetries and deficiencies. While obesity has been reported to impede movement, the correlation between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), and FMS™ in athletes is unknown. Objective: To determine if there is a relationship between BMI, BF%, and FMS™ scores in a sample of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Biodynamics laboratory. Participants: A total of 38 male freshman football players (18.0 [0.7] y, 185.3 [5.5] cm, and 103.9 [20.3] kg). Interventions: Height, weight, and BF% were collected, and subjects underwent the FMS™ conducted by a certified athletic trainer. Main Outcome Measures: The dependent variables were BMI, BF%, composite FMS™ score, and 7 individual FMS™ test scores. Subjects were grouped as normal BMI (BMI < 30 kg/m2) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). A composite FMS™ score of ≤14 and an individual FMS™ score of ≤1 were classified as cutoffs for poor movement performance. Results: A negative correlation between composite FMS™ score and BMI approached significance (P = .07, ρ = .296). A negative correlation between composite FMS™ score and BF% was significant (P = .01, ρ = −.449). There was a significant difference in the number of obese subjects scoring below the composite FMS™ cutoff (χ 2 = 5.179, P = .02) and the individual FMS™ cutoff on the deep squat (χ 2 = 6.341, P = .01), hurdle step (χ 2 = 9.870, P = .002), and in-line lunge (χ 2 = 5.584, P = .02) when compared with normal BMI subjects. Conclusions: Increased BF% and BMI relate to lower composite FMS™ and individual FMS™ test scores, indicating potentially poor movement patterns in larger National Collegiate Athletic Association football athletes. Future research should focus on examining lower extremity–specific FMS™ tasks individually from composite FMS™ scores.

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Gregory D. Myer, Nathaniel A. Bates, Christopher A. DiCesare, Kim D. Barber Foss, Staci M. Thomas, Samuel C. Wordeman, Dai Sugimoto, Benjamin D. Roewer, Jennifer M. Medina McKeon, Stephanie L. Di Stasi, Brian W. Noehren, Michael McNally, Kevin R. Ford, Adam W. Kiefer and Timothy E. Hewett


Due to the limitations of single-center studies in achieving appropriate sampling with relatively rare disorders, multicenter collaborations have been proposed to achieve desired sampling levels. However, documented reliability of biomechanical data is necessary for multicenter injury-prevention studies and is currently unavailable.


To measure the reliability of 3-dimensional (3D) biomechanical waveforms from kinetic and kinematic variables during a single-leg landing (SLL) performed at 3 separate testing facilities.


Multicenter reliability study.


3 laboratories.


25 female junior varsity and varsity high school volleyball players who visited each facility over a 1-mo period.


Subjects were instrumented with 43 reflective markers to record 3D motion as they performed SLLs. During the SLL the athlete balanced on 1 leg, dropped down off of a 31-cm-high box, and landed on the same leg. Kinematic and kinetic data from both legs were processed from 2 trials across the 3 laboratories.

Main Outcome Measures:

Coefficients of multiple correlations (CMC) were used to statistically compare each joint angle and moment waveform for the first 500 ms of landing.


Average CMC for lower-extremity sagittal-plane motion was excellent between laboratories (hip .98, knee .95, ankle .99). Average CMC for lower-extremity frontal-plane motion was also excellent between laboratories (hip .98, knee .80, ankle .93). Kinetic waveforms were repeatable in each plane of rotation (3-center mean CMC ≥.71), while knee sagittal-plane moments were the most consistent measure across sites (3-center mean CMC ≥.94).


CMC waveform comparisons were similar relative to the joint measured to previously published reports of between-sessions reliability of sagittal- and frontal-plane biomechanics performed at a single institution. Continued research is needed to further standardize technology and methods to help ensure that highly reliable results can be achieved with multicenter biomechanical screening models.