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Teacher and School Characteristics: Their Relationship to the Inservice Needs of Teachers

Bernard Oliver

Once teachers enter the world of teaching, their opportunities to find continuing education become diffuse and often problematic. Despite the significance placed on continuing education by school districts, inservice and staff development activities are largely understudied in the research community. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate teachers’ inservice preferences and the relationship of these preferences to selected teacher and school characteristics. A 25-item questionnaire was administered to 85 secondary physical education teachers to assess their preferences for inservice education activities. Multiple regression and factor analysis revealed that selected teacher and school characteristics accounted for significant proportions of the variance as measured by the Inservice Needs Inventory.

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Defining Competence: The Case of Teaching

Bernard Oliver

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Teacher Development and Job Incentives: A Psychological View

Bernard Oliver, Janice M. Bibik, Timothy J.L. Chandler, and Stacey L. Lane

Recent efforts to expand the profession of teaching and to enhance the career paths of teachers have led to the development and implementation of various incentive systems. The question of rewards for teaching and teachers has prompted considerable debate and discussion on performance-based or “merit” pay. However, few of the incentive systems implemented have investigated the psychological underpinning of rewards and teachers’ career development. This paper discusses the psychological parameters of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards and the career development of teachers.

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The Career Ladder and Lattice: A New Look at the Teaching Career

Timothy J.L. Chandler, Stacey L. Lane, Janice M. Bibik, and Bernard Oliver

Recent concern over the quality of teachers staffing the nation’s schools has prompted widespread development of educational reform packages designed to improve the teaching profession. Stemming from this effort has been the notion that a teaching career must be structured as a career ladder, progressing from informal elementary instructional tasks to full-time responsibilities in the gymnasium. In this paper we discuss some of the assumptions underlying career ladders in order to highlight their strengths and, more particularly, their weaknesses. We suggest that career ladders address not the true needs of teachers but rather the evaluation needs of administrators. As such, career ladders are not a good means of promoting teacher development. We offer the notion of the career lattice as an alternative means of meeting the motivational needs of teachers.