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  • Author: Bernardo Requena x
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Bernardo Requena, Jaan Ereline, Helena Gapeyeva and Mati Pääsuke


The understanding of posttetanic potentiation (PTP) in human muscles induced by percutaneous electrical stimulation (PES) is important for effective application of electrical stimulation in rehabilitation.


To examine the effect of 7-second high-frequency (100-Hz) submaximal (25% of maximal voluntary contraction force) direct PES on contractile characteristics of the knee-extensor (KE) muscles.


Single-group repeated measures.


Kinesiology laboratory.


13 healthy men age 18–27 years.


Peak force (PF), maximal rates of force development (RFD) and relaxation (RR) of supramaximal twitch, and PF of doublet and 10-Hz tetanic contractions before and after direct tetanic PES.


A significant potentiation of twitch, doublet, and 10-Hz tetanic-contraction PF has been observed at 1–5 minutes posttetanic. Twitch RFD and RR were markedly potentiated throughout the 10-minute posttetanic period.


A brief high-frequency submaximal tetanic PES induces PTP in KE muscles associated with small increase at 1–5 minutes.

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Luis Suarez-Arrones, Carlos Arenas, Guillermo López, Bernardo Requena, Oliver Terrill and Alberto Mendez-Villanueva


This study describes the physical match demands relative to positional group in male rugby sevens.


Ten highly trained players were investigated during competitive matches (N = 23) using GPS technology, heart rate (HR), and video recording.


The relative distance covered by the players throughout the match was 102.3 ± 9.8 m/min. As a percentage of total distance, 35.8% (36.6 ± 5.9 m/min) was covered walking, 26.0% (26.6 ± 5.5 m/min) jogging, 10.0% (10.2 ± 2.4 m/min) running at low intensity, 14.2% (14.5 ± 4.0 m/min) at medium intensity, 4.6% (4.7 ± 1.6 m/min) at high intensity, and 9.5% (9.7 ± 3.7 m/min) sprinting. For the backs, a substantial decrease in total distance and distance covered at low, medium, and high intensity was observed in the second half. Forwards exhibited a substantial decrease in the distance covered at medium intensity, high intensity, and sprinting in the 2nd half. Backs covered substantially more total distance at medium and sprinting speeds than forwards. In addition, the maximum length of sprint runs was substantially greater for the backs than forwards. On the contrary, forwards performed more tackles. The mean HR during the match in backs and forwards was similar, with the exception of time spent at HR intensities >90%HRmax, which was substantially higher in forwards.


These findings provide a description of the different physical demands placed on rugby sevens backs and forwards. This information may be helpful in the development of positional and/or individualized physical-fitness training programs.