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Andrea L. Hergenroeder, Bethany Barone Gibbs, Mary P. Kotlarczyk, Subashan Perera, Robert J. Kowalsky and Jennifer S. Brach

The aim of this study was to evaluate accuracy of seven commercial activity monitors in measuring steps in older adults with varying walking abilities and to assess monitor acceptability and usability. Forty-three participants (age = 87 ± 5.7 years) completed a gait speed assessment, two walking trials while wearing the activity monitors, and questionnaires about usability features and activity monitor preferences. The Accusplit AX2710 Accelerometer Pedometer had the highest accuracy (93.68% ± 13.95%), whereas the Fitbit Charge had the lowest (39.12% ± 40.3%). Device accuracy varied based on assistive device use, and none of the monitors were accurate at gait speeds <0.08 m/s. Barriers to monitor usability included inability to apply monitor and access the step display. Monitor accuracy was rated as the most important feature, and ability to interface with a smart device was the least important feature. This study identified the limitations of the current commercial activity monitors in both step counting accuracy and usability features for older adults.

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John M. Jakicic, Wendy C. King, Bethany Barone Gibbs, Renee J. Rogers, Amy D. Rickman, Kelliann K. Davis, Abdus Wahed and Steven H. Belle

Background:

To compare moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) assessed via questionnaires to an objective measure of MVPA in overweight or obese young adults.

Methods:

MVPA was assessed in 448 [median BMI = 31.2 (Interquartile Range: 28.5–34.3) kg/m2] young adults [median age: 30.9 (Interquartile Range: 27.8–33.7) years]. Measures included the SenseWear Armband (MVPAOBJ), the Paffenbarger Questionnaire (MVPAPAFF), and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). The GPAQ was used to compute total MVPA (MVPAGPAQ-TOTAL) and MVPA from transportation and recreation (MVPAGPAQ-REC).

Results:

The association between MVPAOBJ and MVPAPAFF was r s = 0.40 (P < .0001). Associations between MVPAOBJ and MVPAGPAQ-TOTAL and MVPAGPAQ-REC were r s = 0.19 and r s = 0.32, respectively (P < .0001). MVPAGPAQ-TOTAL was significantly greater than MVPAOBJ (P < .0001). Median differences in MET-min/week between MVPAOBJ and MVPAPAFF or MVPAGPAQ-REC were not significantly different from zero. There was proportional bias between each self-reported measure of MVPA and MVPAOBJ. There were significant associations between all measures of MVPA and fitness. MVPAOBJ was significantly associated with BMI and percent body fat.

Conclusions:

Objective and self-reported measures of MVPA are weakly to moderately correlated, with substantial differences between measures. MVPAOBJ provided predictive validity with fitness, BMI, and percent body fat. Thus, an objective measure of MVPA may be preferred to self-report in young adults.

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Bethany Barone Gibbs, Wendy C. King, Kelliann K. Davis, Amy D. Rickman, Renee J. Rogers, Abdus Wahed, Steven H. Belle and John Jakicic

Background:

Sedentary behavior (SED) has been measured almost exclusively by self-reported total SED or television time in longitudinal studies. This manuscript aimed to compare self-reported vs. objectively measured SED.

Methods:

Among overweight and obese young adults enrolled in a weight loss trial, baseline SED was assessed by 3 methods: 1) a questionnaire assessing 8 common SEDs (SEDQ), 2) 1 question assessing SED from the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (SEDGPAQ), and 3) a monitor worn on the arm (SEDOBJ). In addition, television time (SEDTV) was isolated from the SEDQ. SED measures were compared using Spearman’s correlations, signed-rank tests, and Bland-Altman plots.

Results:

In 448 participants, SEDQ and SEDGPAQ were only weakly associated with SEDOBJ (rs = 0.21; P < .001, rs = 0.32; P < .001, respectively). Compared with SEDOBJ, SEDQ more often overestimated SEDOBJ (median difference: 1.1 hours/day; P < .001), while SEDGPAQ more often underestimated SEDOBJ (median difference: –0.7 hours/day; P < .001). The correlation between SEDTV and SEDOBJ was not significantly different from 0 (rs = 0.08; P = .08).

Conclusions:

SEDQ and SEDGPAQ were weakly correlated with, and significantly different from, SEDOBJ in overweight and obese young adults. SEDTV was not related to SEDOBJ. The poor associations of self-reported and objectively measured SED could affect interpretation and comparison across studies relating SED to adverse health outcomes.

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Robert J. Kowalsky, Sophy J. Perdomo, John M. Taormina, Christopher E. Kline, Andrea L. Hergenroeder, Jeffrey R. Balzer, John M. Jakicic and Bethany Barone Gibbs

Background: Limited research examines the influence of sit-stand desks on ratings of discomfort, sleepiness, and fatigue. This study evaluated the time course of these outcomes over 1 day. Methods: Adults (N = 25) completed a randomized cross-over study in a laboratory with two 8-hour workday conditions: (1) prolonged sitting (SIT) and (2) alternating sitting and standing every 30 minutes (SIT-STAND). Sleepiness was assessed hourly. Discomfort, physical fatigue, and mental fatigue were measured every other hour. Linear mixed models evaluated whether these measures differed across conditions and the workday. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen’s d. Results: Participants were primarily white (84%) males (64%), with mean (SD) body mass index of 31.9 (5.0) kg/m2 and age 42 (12) years. SIT-STAND resulted in decreased odds of discomfort (OR = 0.37, P = .01) and lower overall discomfort (β = −0.19, P < .001, d = 0.42) versus SIT. Discomfort during SIT-STAND was lower in the lower and upper back, but higher in the legs (all Ps< .01, d = 0.26–0.42). Sleepiness (β = −0.09, P = .01, d = 0.15) and physical fatigue (β = −0.34, P = .002, d = 0.34) were significantly lower in SIT-STAND. Mental fatigue was similar across conditions. Conclusions: Sit-stand desks may reduce acute levels of sleepiness, physical fatigue, and both overall and back discomfort. However, levels of lower extremity discomfort may be increased with acute exposure.