There has been a notable increase in research on aging and physical activity in recent years. Most of this research derives from the natural sciences, using quantitative methods to examine the consequences of the physically aging body. Although these investigations have contributed significantly to our knowledge, to further understand the complex meanings attached to physical activity we also need social-science research. The article explores how a variety of social scientists (positivisls, postpositivists, interpretive social scientists, critical social scientists, poststructuralists, and postmodernists) who use quantitative and qualitative methods approach physical activity and aging. Through examples from research on aging and physical activity, the authors highlight the differences, possibilities, and limitations of each research approach. Their intention is not to declare one research approach superior to any other but to increase awareness and acceptance of different paradigms and to encourage dialogue between those who study aging and physical activity from a variety of perspectives.
Pirkko Markula, Bevan C. Grant and Jim Denison
Bevan C. Grant, Keith D. Ballard and Ted L. Glynn
A multiple baseline research design across teachers was used to evaluate the effects of feedback to teachers of behavioral data gathered in baseline lessons. Two teachers received such feedback while a third teacher served as a control. Both teachers who received feedback increased the amount of time students spent in motor-on-task behavior (+15%). Increases in motor-on-task behavior did not occur at the expense of any other student behavior. While this increase provided the students with more learning trials, only one of the two intervention teachers was able to increase the percentage of success of all student achievement groups when performing the learning trials. There were no substantial differences in student behavior between the three classes taught by the teacher who did not receive feedback. The study showed that although there were considerable differences in how physical education lessons were implemented, the two intervention teachers were able to respond to feedback and to modify their lessons so that the amount of student participation was increased.