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Bo Hu, Xiaoyu Liu, Chenggang Wang, Sufeng Yin, Liqun Yu, Tianzhe Zhang, Jianhui Wu, Yinping Chen, Yao Zheng, and Fumin Feng


To examine the association and relative contribution of different levels of physical activity (PA) with metabolic syndrome (MS).


The cluster sampling method was used to recruit 8,750 communitybased individuals between 40 and 60 years of age. MS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation, 2005. PA was estimated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and three levels of PA (low, moderate, vigorous) were used to classify the individuals. The risk factors of MS were comprehensively collected, and logistic regression methods were used to measure the association between PA and MS. Population-attributable risks and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated based on the regression model.


Approximately 30.4% (2,661) of the participants were MS patients. The percentage of individuals with vigorous levels of PA was 46.2% and 43.5% and with low levels of PA was 11.3% and 11.3% in non-MS and MS group, respectively. Individuals with vigorous PA had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.91) for MS compared with those with low PA, and the OR for individuals with moderate PA was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.01). Moderate and vigorous PA levels decreased risk of MS by 18.3%, with approximately 11% of that decrease due to vigorous PA.


Vigorous PA levels were consistently associated with a reduced risk of MS; however, a protective role of moderate PA was not found. The population-attributable risk for vigorous PA was about 11% for all MS risk factors.

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Yang Liu, Yan Tang, Zhen-Bo Cao, Jie Zhuang, Zheng Zhu, Xue-Ping Wu, Li-Juan Wang, Yu-Jun Cai, Jia-Lin Zhang, and Pei-Jie Chen

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Bong Kil Song, Geon Hui Kim, Jung Woon Kim, Elizabeth C. Lefferts, Angelique G. Brellenthin, Duck-Chul Lee, Yu-Mi Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Bo Youl Choi, and Yeon Soo Kim

Background: To examine the independent and combined association between relative quadriceps strength and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in older adults. Methods: Among 1441 Korean older adults aged ≥65 years (71 [4.7] y) recruited between 2007 and 2016, 1055 older adults with no history of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer were included in the analysis. Cases of T2DM were identified by self-reported physician diagnosis, use antihyperglycemic medication or insulin, or fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dL. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of T2DM by quartiles of relative quadriceps strength. Results: There were 162 T2DM cases (15%). Compared with the lowest quartile (weakest), the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of T2DM were 0.56 (0.34–0.90), 0.60 (0.37–0.96), and 0.47 (0.28–0.80) in the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively, after adjusting for possible confounders, including body mass index. In the joint analysis, compared with the “weak and overweight/obese” group, the odds (odds ratios [95% confidence intervals]) of T2DM was only lower in the “strong and normal weight” group (0.36 [0.22–0.60]) after adjusting for possible confounders. Conclusions: Greater relative quadriceps strength is associated with reduced odds of T2DM in older adults after adjusting for potential confounders including body mass index.