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Phillip Ward and Bomna Ko

We examined publication trends in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE) in terms of total representation as well as trends by decade of the (a) sex and country of affiliation of editors, (b) sex and country of affiliation of editorial board members, (c) sex and country of affiliation of first authors, (d) types of manuscripts published, and (e) foci of those manuscripts. Overall results suggest that female scholars have achieved parity in terms in editorships and editorial memberships on the JTPE board. In terms of international representation, whereas the editorships remain predominately in the hands of those from the United States, there is an increasing international representation on the editorial board. The majority of submissions come from the United States, with just under one-sixth coming from other countries. In terms of the focus and type of manuscript published, results show a diverse range, thus reflecting a nonpartisan journal defined by problems and settings, rather than methodology or ideology.

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Insook Kim and Bomna Ko

Purpose: This study examined how content knowledge (CK) varies between teachers with different levels of content expertise in teaching volleyball. In addition, it investigated changes to the content-experienced (C-Exd) teachers’ enacted pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and their students’ performances after developing CK, compared with those of the content-expert (C-Ext) teachers. Method: Two C-Exd and two C-Ext teachers and their 72 students participated in this study. A well-designed CK workshop was implemented for the two C-Exd teachers’ CK improvement. Differences in the teachers’ CK, enacted PCK, and their students’ performance measures were compared. Results: The results of this study indicated that the C-Ext teachers possessed stronger CK than the C-Exd teachers and that the C-Exd teachers improved their enacted PCK and the students’ motor performance after the CK workshop without showing statistically significant differences from those of the C-Ext teachers. Conclusion: The study presents ways to promote teacher effectiveness with supportive evidence-based practices.

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Bomna Ko, Tristan Wallhead and Phillip Ward

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Seok Yoon, Janet Buckworth, Brian Focht and Bomna Ko

This study used a path analysis approach to examine the relationship between feelings of energy, exercise-related self-efficacy beliefs, and exercise participation. A cross-sectional mailing survey design was used to measure feelings of physical and mental energy, task and scheduling self-efficacy beliefs, and voluntary moderate and vigorous exercise participation in 368 healthy, full-time undergraduate students (mean age = 21.43 ± 2.32 years). The path analysis revealed that the hypothesized path model had a strong fit to the study data. The path model showed that feelings of physical energy had significant direct effects on task and scheduling self-efficacy beliefs as well as exercise behaviors. In addition, scheduling self-efficacy had direct effects on moderate and vigorous exercise participation. However, there was no significant direct relationship between task self-efficacy and exercise participation. The path model also revealed that scheduling self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between feelings of physical energy and exercise participation.

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Phillip Ward, Fatih Dervent, Yun Soo Lee, Bomna Ko, Insook Kim and Wang Tao


This study reports on our efforts toward extending the conceptual understanding of content development in physical education by validating content maps as a measurement tool, examining new categories of instructional tasks to describe content development and validating formulae that can be used to evaluate depth of content development.


The reliability, content, and concurrent validity of content maps and formulae were evaluated together with an application of the content maps and formulae. Descriptive statistics were used to report the data.


The reliability and validity of content maps was established. The new categories allowed for a finer analysis of content development. All formulae differentiated among different content expertise.


If depth of content knowledge is evidenced by tasks designed to refine, extend and apply student performance, then the content map, categories and formulae reported in this study provide tools that have utility for teachers, teacher educators and researchers.

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Insook Kim, Phillip Ward, Oleg Sinelnikov, Bomna Ko, Peter Iserbyt, Weidong Li and Matthew Curtner-Smith

Purpose: We conducted a retroactive analysis of teacher and student data from two randomized group trials and one well-controlled quasi-experimental group trial focused on improving pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and student performance. Method: Seven teachers and 32 classes were investigated. PCK was measured using four variables: task selection, representation, adaption, and an aggregate variable called total PCK. Student data are reported as percentages of correct performance. Data are reported descriptively using effect sizes (ES). Results: The studies generated 35 ES across four teachers and one student performance variable. All ES exceeded the U.S. Department of Education’s What Works Clearinghouse .25 standard deviation criterion for a “substantively important” effect and all ES exceeded Cohen’s criteria of .8 for a large effect. Discussion: Findings from this study support a focus on professional development of teachers’ content knowledge as an evidenced-based practice for improving the PCK of teachers and in turn student performance.