Brad D. Hatfield
Brad D. Hatfield and Daniel M. Landers
An area of inquiry that has largely been ignored in scientific studies in the field of sport psychology/motor performance is the subdiscipline of psychology called psychophysiology. This subdiscipline, which is concerned with inferences of psychological processes and emotional states from an examination of physiological measures, is rich in methodological and theoretical insights that could improve research and practice within sport psychology/motor performance. The current methodological and theoretical issues in psychophysiology are first reviewed and then specifically related to recent sport studies that demonstrate their applicability to the enhancement of both theoretical and applied aspects of sport.
Brad D. Hatfield, Daniel M. Landers and William J. Ray
In the initial phase of the study (Study 1) electrocortical arousal (EEG alpha activity) was assessed at four standardized sites (T3, T4, 01, and 02) from male and female (N = 17) international-caliber marksmen during rifle shooting performance. The task consisted of the execution of 40 shots at a conventional indoor target from the standing position. During each shot preparation, a significant increase in left temporal and occipital alpha activity was demonstrated, while the right hemispheric activity remained constant. Hemispheric laterality ratios (T4:T3) evidenced a significant shift toward right-brain dominance as the time to trigger pull approached. In the second phase of the study (Study 2) male and female (N = 15) marksmen performed the same shooting task and, additionally, the resultant EEG performance patterns were contrasted to those observed during the mental processing of sterotyped left-brain and right-brain mental tasks. Observed EEG patterns, that is, temporal ratios, during shooting replicated the results of Study 1, and furthermore, indicated that the laterality indices derived during shooting exhibited a more pronounced shift to right-brain processing than did those derived during right-brain mental task performance. The EEG data obtained during the comparative mental task states were used to interpret the shooting performance EEG findings in terms of the implications from bilateral or split-brain cognitive process theory.
Brad D. Hatfield, Jerry P. Wrenn and Michael M. Bretting
A problem cited by critics of preparation programs in sport management has been the lack of specialty tracks. Therefore, responses regarding the perceived importance of job responsibilities, demographic information, and educational recommendations were solicited from athletic directors (ADs) (n = 58) of NCAA Division I-A football programs and from general managers (GMs) (n = 62) within professional sport to characterize the two areas. Multivariate contrasts upon groups of items in all areas of job responsibility yielded significant differences. The GMs rated the areas of labor relations and personnel evaluations as more important, while the ADs assigned higher ratings to all other categories (i.e., marketing, financial management, administration, public relations). A discriminant function analysis upon the individual job items corroborated these differences. These findings were discussed in terms of recommendations for the education of sport administrators.
Daniel M. Landers, Michael O. Wilkinson, Brad D. Hatfield and Heather Barber
The causal predominance of performance affecting later cohesiveness that has been shown in previous studies was examined by means of a series of statistical analyses designed to assess influence in a longitudinal panel design. Male students (N = 44) participating in a basketball league were administered cohesiveness and participation motivation scales at early, mid, and late season. In contrast to previous findings, the cross-lagged correlations showed that performance and cohesion were significantly related to each other with no causal predominance of one over the other. With the exception of the friendship measure, the cross-lagged correlations were no longer significant when earlier measures of the effect variable were controlled through partial correlation and path analysis techniques. In contrast to previous research, midseason cohesion, as measured by friendship, was a significant (p < .04) predictor of late season performance. The importance of interpersonal attraction in the recruitment and maintenance of intramural team members is discussed along with the necessity for determining, in future studies, the reliability of cohesiveness measures.
Edward McAuley, Joan Duda, Atsushi Fujita, Lise Gauvin, Wayne Halliwell, Yuri L. Hanin, Brad D. Hatfield, Thelma Horn, Wang Min Qi, Kevin Spink, Maureen Weiss and David Yukelson
This study was designed to examine perceptions of causality and perceptions of success in women's intercollegiate gymnastics and to determine the relative influence of perception of success on causal explanations for performance and the reciprocal influence, if any, of causal attributions on perceptions of success. Intercollegiate gymnasts were asked to indicate how successful they felt their performance had been on each of four Olympic gymnastic events. The gymnasts also completed the Causal Dimension Scale (Russell, 1982) following performance of each event. The score awarded by the judges for each event was employed as an objective, absolute measure of performance. Multivariate analyses of variance that revealed more internal, stable, and controllable attributions for performance were made by those gymnasts who scored high and perceived their performance as more successful than those gymnasts who scored lower and perceived their performance as less successful. The results of this study are discussed in terms of new approaches to attribution research in sport.