The knowledge and experience acquired in Continued Professional Development (CPD) is considered self-development and is dependent upon the individual’s perception of control over professional growth (Chalofsky, 1990). The purpose of this study was to analyze coaches’ self-development perceptions through Chalofsky’s (1990) eight constructs. An inductive analysis revealed that novice coaches lacked responsibility for self-development and believed the head coach to be responsible for athlete results. Intermediate coaches had increased perception of control that enabled them to use their own coaching styles as they relied on experiences and daily reflection to improve. Similarly, expert coaches perceived full responsibility for their self-development, and realized the dependence of their assistant coaches as well. The findings supported Chalofsky’s (1990) contention that self-development is dependent upon individual perception of control.
Brad Vickers and Brendon Hale
Bryan McCullick, Mike Metzler, Seref Cicek, Josephine Jackson and Brad Vickers
An ever-increasing focus on accountability in teacher education has augmented the importance of physical education teacher education (PETE) programs to develop procedures for assessing their candidates and completers—the student teachers (STs). Finding out what students think, know, and feel about STs’ teaching ability is yet another valuable source of data that can assist in the assessment process. The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine students’ perspectives of STs’ effectiveness as a window into the effectiveness of a PETE program, and (b) to identify students’ ability to provide valuable feedback to PETE programs on how well STs meet the NASPE National Standards for Beginning Physical Education Teachers (NSBPET). Using the NASPE/NCATE standards as a framework, a set of interview questions was developed to elicit students’ perspectives of the STs’ performance. Findings were inductively analyzed and indicated that STs were able to meet some of the NASPE/NCATE standards and that students can be valuable data sources regarding STs’ competence in Content Knowledge, Diverse Learners, Communication, Management and Motivation, Planning and Instruction, Student Assessment, and Reflection. Students were less able to provide insight into STs’ performance in Growth and Development, Technology, and Collaboration. Overall, these findings suggest that students can be counted on as a source of evidence to complement a thorough and fruitful program assessment.
Bryan McCullick, Paul Schempp, Shan-Hui Hsu, Jin Hong Jung, Brad Vickers and Greg Schuknecht
A distinguishing characteristic of expert teachers appears to be an excellent memory (Berliner, 1986; Tan, 1997). Possessing an excellent memory aids experts in building a substantial knowledge base relative to teaching and learning. Despite its importance, the memory skills of expert teachers have yet to be investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the working memories of expert sport instructors. Forty-three expert teachers served as subjects for this study. Each teacher was shown a series of slides depicting play and instructional situations in their respective domains. The test required that the subjects view a slide for 5 seconds and then recall as much as they could from the slide. The audio taped responses were transcribed and then analyzed inductively using Huberman and Miles’ (1995) four stage analysis framework to draw themes and commonalities from the data. The findings revealed three themes of experts’ working memories: (a) voluminous and rich, (b) a dominant order, and (c) include a thorough skill analysis. There is support for Berliner (1986) and Tan’s (1997) contention that experts have excellent memories, arrange their knowledge in a hierarchical manner, and are able to discern the important from the unimportant.