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Jeffrey A. Borgmeyer, Bradley A. Scott and Jerry L. Mayhew


The effect of ice massage on muscle-strength performance is equivocal.


To determine the effects of ice massage on maximum isokinetic torque produced during a 20-minute interval.


Participants performed a maximal isokinetic contraction of the right arm at 30°/s every 2 minutes for 20 minutes, once after a 10-minute ice massage over the right biceps brachii muscle belly and once without ice treatment. Sessions were randomized.


11 college men.


Torque was measured with a Cybex® II dynamometer. Biceps skinfold was measured with a Harpenden caliper.


A repeated-measures ANCOVA revealed no significant interaction between time and treatment condition when the effect of skinfold thickness was held constant. A main effect for time indicated that torque production was significantly higher at 4 and 8 minutes and declined thereafter.


A 10-minute ice massage neither enhanced nor retarded muscle-force output and thus may be used for its pain-reducing effect to allow resistance exercise during the rehabilitation process

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Nicholas A. Vavalle, A. Bradley Thompson, Ashley R. Hayes, Daniel P. Moreno, Joel D. Stitzel and F. Scott Gayzik

Accurate mass distribution in computational human body models is essential for proper kinematic and kinetic simulations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mass distribution of a 50th percentile male (M50) full body finite element model (FEM) in the seated position. The FEM was partitioned into 10 segments, using segment planes constructed from bony landmarks per the methods described in previous research studies. Body segment masses and centers of gravity (CGs) of the FEM were compared with values found from these studies, which unlike the present work assumed homogeneous body density. Segment masses compared well to literature while CGs showed an average deviation of 6.0% to 7.0% when normalized by regional characteristic lengths. The discrete mass distribution of the FEM appears to affect the mass and CGs of some segments, particularly those with low-density soft tissues. The locations of the segment CGs are provided in local coordinate systems, thus facilitating comparison with other full body FEMs and human surrogates. The model provides insights into the effects of inhomogeneous mass on the location of body segment CGs.