There is interest in promoting greater inclusion and participation among international fellows in the National Academy of Kinesiology. There are challenges, however, including understanding the implications of such efforts and considering what the role of a national academy might be in the international community. This essay and the accompanying one by Mark Dyreson, the historian of the National Academy of Kinesiology, attempt to shed light on these issues. In complementary ways, the essays review the ideas and aspirations expressed by the academy’s founders, as well as those who influenced them, the (honorary) fellows in memoriam. Also embedded in this essay is a chronological listing of the international fellows who have delivered the C. Lynn Vendien International Lecture. This list had not previously existed in a single document.
Bradley J. Cardinal
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between inactive older adults’ physical activity readiness (based on the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire [PARQ]) and several biometric, demographic, and physical activity indices. Participants were 181 (91 female, 90 male) inactive 60- to 89-year-old adults (M age = 70.2 ± 6.6 yr.). Self-report measures were completed and body mass index (BMI) and VO2max were estimated. BMI, weight, and VO2max were significantly associated with physical activity readiness. There was no significant association among 10-year age cohort and physical activity readiness. The blood pressure question excluded the largest number of participants (42%). Overall, 45.3% of the participants appeared to be healthy enough to begin a low to moderate physical activity program. Preliminary evidence suggests the PARQ may be a useful method of identifying older adults for whom low to moderate physical activity participation is safe.
Bradley J. Cardinal
Concerns about college and university student health date back to at least the mid-19th century. These concerns were addressed through the development and implementation of required, service-based physical activity education programs. In the 1920s–1930s, 97% of American colleges and universities offered such programs. Today less than 40% do. However, student health issues persist. This essay asserts that kinesiology departments are best suited to address these needs by delivering physical activity education courses through their institution’s general education curriculum. General education courses are those that every student must take in order to develop the competencies necessary for living a full and complete life and contributing to society. Given the growing costs of higher education, any such requirement must be justifiable. Therefore, implementing and sustaining a physical activity education general education requirement is not for the faint of heart; it requires effort, resources, support, and time. This essay explores these issues.
Bradley J. Cardinal
Kinesiology is a field focused on physical activity and its impact on health, society, and quality of life. But do all people have equal opportunities to access and experience physical activity? Do physical activity settings allow people to freely express themselves? Are the benefits of physical activity universally shared by all people? If the answer to any of these questions is “no,” then these questions demand not only our immediate attention, but also our collective action. During the National Academy of Kinesiology’s 90th anniversary meeting, September 22–24, 2021, these questions and others were explored through presentations devoted to the theme “Kinesiology’s Social Justice Imperative.” This essay overviews the meeting, its purpose, and the organizers and introduces the 11 thematic papers in the “Proceedings of the National Academy of Kinesiology’s 2021 Meeting: Kinesiology’s Social Justice Imperative” issue, plus a 12th essay commemorating the National Academy of Kinesiology’s 90th anniversary meeting.
Bradley J. Cardinal
This paper offers a critical review and analysis of physical activity psychology research over the past quarter century (primarily), describes current research trends in the area, and suggests future research directions. This is a vast and ambitious task. Furthermore, the contributions come from those within kinesiology, as well as outside of kinesiology, with many new disciplines and professions advancing research agendas in this domain. There are rich and distinctive opportunities for interdisciplinary collaborations in this area, opportunities that have genuine transformative potential. Following the paper's introduction, six major topics are addressed, including: what physical activity psychology is, foundational work in physical activity psychology research, trends in physical activity psychology research, behavioral specificity, physical activity prevalence, and where to go in the future. The paper concludes with a call-to-action, particularly aimed at helping to get and keep people physically active across the lifespan, which is the fundamental work of physical activity psychology.
Bradley J. Cardinal
This essay commemorates the National Academy of Kinesiology’s 90th anniversary meeting, even though the first meeting of fellows of an “[American] Academy of Physical Education” occurred in 1904, some 118 years ago. Clark W. Hetherington, Robert Tait McKenzie, William Burdick, Thomas A. Storey, and Jay B. Nash met in October 1926 to reignite the Academy of yesteryear. On December 31, 1930, just 14 months and 1 week into the Great Depression, they and 24 others formally launched what the Academy has become today. “Clearly, they were a bold, hearty, and optimistic group. Their determination, inspiration, and perspiration remain guiding lights for us to this day!” This essay aims to demystify and humanize the Academy by sharing stories of how it was formed and how it continues to inform all those working in kinesiology and related fields through its distinguished Fellows, one of whom is a Nobel Laureate.
Bradley J. Cardinal and Marita K. Cardinal
The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PARQ) offers a safe preexercise screening of participants prior to physical activity involvement. However, the measure seems to screen out a relatively high proportion of apparently healthy older adults. In an attempt to improve this situation, an expert panel convened by Fitness Canada worked to revise the measure (rPARQ). The present study compares the number of exclusions resulting from the original and revised PARQ instruments in older adults (84 men, 85 women; M age 76.5 yrs). The number of participants screened out by the rPARQ decreased significantly (p < .001), from 139 to 105. Agreement between measures was achieved in 78.7% of the participants (Cohen's kappa = .50). In an effort to promote physical activity involvement, researchers and practitioners are encouraged to consider the use of the recently developed rPARQ over the PARQ as a preexercise screening alternative.
Jafrā D. Thomas and Bradley J. Cardinal
The majority of physical activity resources are too difficult to be easily read and understood by most U.S. adults. Attempts to ensure that such resources are written in the most accessible manner possible have been advanced (e.g., 2010 U.S. National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy). For this study, physical activity educational resources were collected through the Internet (N = 163), and their reading grade levels were analyzed. Over 50% of the resources were written at an unsatisfactory level, with the observed reading grade level being greater than eighth-grade (M = 8.98, SD = 2.92, p < .001, 95% CI [8.53, 9.43]), the maximum recommended. Suggestions for future research and publicly engaged sociology of sport praxis are discussed, with a focus on increasing the equity of written physical activity educational resources.
Bradley J. Cardinal, Hermann-J. Engels, and Weimo Zhu
The Transtheoreticai Model of behavior change was applied to a sample of 669 preadolescents (M age = 8.2) to determine whether stages of exercise could be observed. Associations between stage of exercise classification and demographic, fitness, and cognitive variables were examined. Stage of exercise classifications, on the basis of the Children’s Stage of Exercise Algorithm, were as follows: maintenance (50.8%), action (36.5%), preparation (3.1%), contemplation (4.9%), and precontemplation (4.6%). Stage of exercise was significantly related to gender, age, and grade level. Controlling for these differences, the relationship between exercise beliefs and stage of exercise was significant.
Hyo Lee, Bradley J. Cardinal, and Paul D. Loprinzi
Socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation are potential contributors of adolescent physical activity disparity among ethnic groups in the U.S. However, studies relying on self-report physical activity measures have reported inconsistent findings regarding sociocultural predictors of physical activity. Therefore, the current study examined the main and interactive effects of SES and acculturation on accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) among Mexican American adolescents.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004 was analyzed. Samples of 153 and 169 Mexican American boys and girls, respectively, were analyzed. SES was indicated by poverty-to-income ratio (PIR); and acculturation was measured by 5-item English preference scales and adolescent and parental country of birth. Regression models were tested separately for boys and girls.
U.S.-born boys compared with immigrants did more MVPA (β = .48, P < .01). On the contrary, the effect of English preference on MVPA in boys was negative (β = –.05, P < .01) and amplified by higher SES (β = –.02, P < .01). For girls, none of the tested variables were significant.
Higher SES was a risk factor for physical inactivity in Mexican American adolescents, by a moderating mechanism. In addition, physical activity promotion efforts need to consider English speaking and immigrant Mexican American adolescent boys as a target population.