The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between inactive older adults’ physical activity readiness (based on the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire [PARQ]) and several biometric, demographic, and physical activity indices. Participants were 181 (91 female, 90 male) inactive 60- to 89-year-old adults (M age = 70.2 ± 6.6 yr.). Self-report measures were completed and body mass index (BMI) and VO2max were estimated. BMI, weight, and VO2max were significantly associated with physical activity readiness. There was no significant association among 10-year age cohort and physical activity readiness. The blood pressure question excluded the largest number of participants (42%). Overall, 45.3% of the participants appeared to be healthy enough to begin a low to moderate physical activity program. Preliminary evidence suggests the PARQ may be a useful method of identifying older adults for whom low to moderate physical activity participation is safe.
Bradley J. Cardinal
Bradley J. Cardinal
Concerns about college and university student health date back to at least the mid-19th century. These concerns were addressed through the development and implementation of required, service-based physical activity education programs. In the 1920s–1930s, 97% of American colleges and universities offered such programs. Today less than 40% do. However, student health issues persist. This essay asserts that kinesiology departments are best suited to address these needs by delivering physical activity education courses through their institution’s general education curriculum. General education courses are those that every student must take in order to develop the competencies necessary for living a full and complete life and contributing to society. Given the growing costs of higher education, any such requirement must be justifiable. Therefore, implementing and sustaining a physical activity education general education requirement is not for the faint of heart; it requires effort, resources, support, and time. This essay explores these issues.
Bradley J. Cardinal
This paper offers a critical review and analysis of physical activity psychology research over the past quarter century (primarily), describes current research trends in the area, and suggests future research directions. This is a vast and ambitious task. Furthermore, the contributions come from those within kinesiology, as well as outside of kinesiology, with many new disciplines and professions advancing research agendas in this domain. There are rich and distinctive opportunities for interdisciplinary collaborations in this area, opportunities that have genuine transformative potential. Following the paper's introduction, six major topics are addressed, including: what physical activity psychology is, foundational work in physical activity psychology research, trends in physical activity psychology research, behavioral specificity, physical activity prevalence, and where to go in the future. The paper concludes with a call-to-action, particularly aimed at helping to get and keep people physically active across the lifespan, which is the fundamental work of physical activity psychology.
Bradley J. Cardinal
There is interest in promoting greater inclusion and participation among international fellows in the National Academy of Kinesiology. There are challenges, however, including understanding the implications of such efforts and considering what the role of a national academy might be in the international community. This essay and the accompanying one by Mark Dyreson, the historian of the National Academy of Kinesiology, attempt to shed light on these issues. In complementary ways, the essays review the ideas and aspirations expressed by the academy’s founders, as well as those who influenced them, the (honorary) fellows in memoriam. Also embedded in this essay is a chronological listing of the international fellows who have delivered the C. Lynn Vendien International Lecture. This list had not previously existed in a single document.
Bradley J. Cardinal and Marita K. Cardinal
The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PARQ) offers a safe preexercise screening of participants prior to physical activity involvement. However, the measure seems to screen out a relatively high proportion of apparently healthy older adults. In an attempt to improve this situation, an expert panel convened by Fitness Canada worked to revise the measure (rPARQ). The present study compares the number of exclusions resulting from the original and revised PARQ instruments in older adults (84 men, 85 women; M age 76.5 yrs). The number of participants screened out by the rPARQ decreased significantly (p < .001), from 139 to 105. Agreement between measures was achieved in 78.7% of the participants (Cohen's kappa = .50). In an effort to promote physical activity involvement, researchers and practitioners are encouraged to consider the use of the recently developed rPARQ over the PARQ as a preexercise screening alternative.
Jafrā D. Thomas and Bradley J. Cardinal
The majority of physical activity resources are too difficult to be easily read and understood by most U.S. adults. Attempts to ensure that such resources are written in the most accessible manner possible have been advanced (e.g., 2010 U.S. National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy). For this study, physical activity educational resources were collected through the Internet (N = 163), and their reading grade levels were analyzed. Over 50% of the resources were written at an unsatisfactory level, with the observed reading grade level being greater than eighth-grade (M = 8.98, SD = 2.92, p < .001, 95% CI [8.53, 9.43]), the maximum recommended. Suggestions for future research and publicly engaged sociology of sport praxis are discussed, with a focus on increasing the equity of written physical activity educational resources.
Bradley J. Cardinal, Hermann-J. Engels, and Weimo Zhu
The Transtheoreticai Model of behavior change was applied to a sample of 669 preadolescents (M age = 8.2) to determine whether stages of exercise could be observed. Associations between stage of exercise classification and demographic, fitness, and cognitive variables were examined. Stage of exercise classifications, on the basis of the Children’s Stage of Exercise Algorithm, were as follows: maintenance (50.8%), action (36.5%), preparation (3.1%), contemplation (4.9%), and precontemplation (4.6%). Stage of exercise was significantly related to gender, age, and grade level. Controlling for these differences, the relationship between exercise beliefs and stage of exercise was significant.
Zi Yan, Bonnie Berger, David Tobar, and Bradley J. Cardinal
The exercise motivation of American and Chinese college women was examined. American women were found to exercise more for fitness, physical attractiveness, and weight control, and the Chinese women more for enjoyment. Women in different stages of exercise behavior expressed different reasons for exercise in terms of enjoyment, fitness, health, mood, and physical attractiveness. Focusing one’s attention on reasons such as enjoyment for Chinese women and fitness, physical attractiveness, and weight control for American women may be important in terms of exercise participation. The long-term exercisers expressed higher levels of motivation in terms of enjoyment, fitness, health, mood, and physical attractiveness.
Hyo Lee, Bradley J. Cardinal, and Paul D. Loprinzi
Socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation are potential contributors of adolescent physical activity disparity among ethnic groups in the U.S. However, studies relying on self-report physical activity measures have reported inconsistent findings regarding sociocultural predictors of physical activity. Therefore, the current study examined the main and interactive effects of SES and acculturation on accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) among Mexican American adolescents.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004 was analyzed. Samples of 153 and 169 Mexican American boys and girls, respectively, were analyzed. SES was indicated by poverty-to-income ratio (PIR); and acculturation was measured by 5-item English preference scales and adolescent and parental country of birth. Regression models were tested separately for boys and girls.
U.S.-born boys compared with immigrants did more MVPA (β = .48, P < .01). On the contrary, the effect of English preference on MVPA in boys was negative (β = –.05, P < .01) and amplified by higher SES (β = –.02, P < .01). For girls, none of the tested variables were significant.
Higher SES was a risk factor for physical inactivity in Mexican American adolescents, by a moderating mechanism. In addition, physical activity promotion efforts need to consider English speaking and immigrant Mexican American adolescent boys as a target population.
Bradley J. Cardinal, Eugene A. Park, MooSong Kim, and Marita K. Cardinal
This study provides an update on the amount and type of physical activity education occurring in medical education in the United States in 2013. It is the first study to do so since 2002.
Applying content analysis methodology, we reviewed all accessible accredited doctor of medicine and doctor of osteopathic medicine institutions’ websites for physical activity education related coursework (N = 118 fully accessible; 69.41%).
The majority of institutions did not offer any physical activity education–related courses. When offered, they were rarely required. Courses addressing sports medicine and exercise physiology were offered more than courses in other content domains. Most courses were taught using a clinical approach. No differences were observed between MD and DO institutions, or between private and public institutions.
More than one-half of the physicians trained in the United States in 2013 received no formal education in physical activity and may, therefore, be ill-prepared to assist their patients in a manner consistent with Healthy People 2020, the National Physical Activity Plan, or the Exercise is Medicine initiative. The Bipartisan Policy Center, American College of Sports Medicine, and the Alliance for a Healthier Generation called for a reversal of this situation on June 23, 2014.