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Brenda A. Riemer

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Brenda A. Riemer

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Brenda A. Riemer

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Brenda A. Riemer

This study is an examination of the identity formation of lesbians in sport and how lesbians interpreted the softball environment with regard to social support and the ability to be open about their lesbianism. Twenty four women on summer slow pitch softball teams, and 5 spectators, participated in qualitative interviews. Responses were consistent with a model of lesbian identity formation that included preconformist, conformist, post-conformist, lesbian conformist, and lesbian post-conformist levels. The support these women received from softball players helped them to come out to others and to enter the lesbian community.

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Brenda A. Riemer and Deborah L. Feltz

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of stereotyped visual images (pictures) on the friendship status ranking of females in “gender-appropriate” and “gender-inappropriate” sports. The study employed a 2×2×3 (sex × sport × image) ANOVA between subjects design, with tennis and basketball being the “appropriate” and “inappropriate” sports chosen respectively. The visual image was manipulated by having a picture of a stereotypical feminine female versus a stereotypical androgynous female. The control group did not have a visual image. We hypothesized that image would interact with sport appropriateness such that the feminine image would enhance the friendship status of the hypothetical basketball player; whereas the androgynous image would lower the hypothetical tennis player’s status. A “sex-byimage” interaction as well as a “sex-by-sport” trend supported the hypothesis for males; males used the perceived femininity/androgyny stereotype to influence their decision about friendship status.

Over the last two decades, women’s active involvement in sport has increased. For example, since the 1972 passage of Title IX, participation has increased by over 600% for girls in interscholastic school programs (Boutilier & SanGiovanni, 1983). Despite an increase in the sport opportunities available to women, stereotypes about what is socially appropriate influence how females in sport are perceived. Gender-role stereotypes have been identified as some of the influencing factors in the perception of appropriate sports for males and females (Metheny, 1965) and in one’s social status (Coleman, 1961). Avariable which may enhance the perception of appropriate sports for males and females is the addition of a visual image. Duncan & Sayaovong (1990) have suggested that visual images have the ability to reinforce or contradict gender-role stereotypes. The purpose of this study was to determine how visual images may affect the perceived status of female high school athletes in “gender-appropriate” and “gender-inappropriate” sports.

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Ellen J. Staurowsky, Erica J. Zonder and Brenda A. Riemer

As Title IX approaches its 50th anniversary, the state of its application to athletic departments within federally funded schools at the secondary and postsecondary levels evokes the expression “the more things change, the more things stay the same.” Title IX has been credited with successfully addressing sexual stereotypes that generally limited opportunities and created barriers for students to realize their full potential as athletes, citizens, parents, scholars, and workers (Buzuvis, 2012). As much as the educational landscape has changed as a result of Title IX, there remains a concern that schools do not have the mechanisms in place to ensure compliance five decades after the law was passed. The purpose of this study was to examine what college athletes know about Title IX and how they come to know it through a survey instrument comprised of five open-ended questions. Consistent with previous studies of coaches, athletics administrators, educators, and athletes, nearly 50% of the college athletes participating in this study did not know what Title IX was. For the remaining 50%, their perceptions of Title IX reveal large gaps in foundational understandings of what Title IX requires and how it works. The words of the respondents offer a window into their understandings and relationship with Title IX which cover a full spectrum from “it opens up the door for everyone” and “gives female athletes the support they need to succeed” to it results in an “illogical” way to achieve fairness.

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Cheryl Cooky, Brenda A. Riemer, James Steele and Bea Vidacs

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Robert S. Kossuth, John Horne, David Naze, C. Richard King, Gregory Ramshaw and Brenda A. Riemer