Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 15 items for

  • Author: Brenda Jo Bredemeier x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Brenda Jo Bredemeier

A structural-developmental approach was employed in the present study to investigate athletes' moral cognitions about intentionally injurious sport acts. Analyses were based on interviews with 40 female and male high school and college basketball players. Subjects reasoned about general life and sport-specific moral dilemmas and made judgments in hypothetical and engaged contexts about the legitimacy of sport behaviors presented in the Continuum of Injurious Acts (CIA). Athletes' moral reasoning levels were inversely related to the number of CIA acts they perceived as legitimate; this reasoning-judgment relationship was particularly strong for sport reasoning and judgments made in the hypothetical context. Also, differences in the perceived legitimacy of CIA acts occurred in hypothetical and engaged contexts and as a function of sex and, in the engaged condition, school level. Results were discussed in light of athletes' coordination of moral reasoning and decision-making about intentionally injurious sport acts.

Restricted access

Brenda Jo Bredemeier

Restricted access

Brenda Jo Light Bredemeier

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between children's moral reasoning and their assertive, aggressive, and submissive action tendencies in sport and daily life contexts. The 106 fourth- through seventh-grade children were asked to reason about hypothetical sport and daily life moral dilemmas and to respond to two behaviorally validated, self-report instruments designed to assess action tendencies in sport and daily life conflict situations. Multiple regression analyses indicated that moral reasoning scores were predictive of action tendencies, with reasoning positively related to assertion and negatively related to aggression. Results were interpreted in light of a congruence between Haan's (1978) descriptions of moral levels and the moral implications of the action tendencies under consideration. Gender and school-level differences in action tendencies were also noted; no gender or school-level differences in moral reasoning were found.

Restricted access

Maureen R. Weiss and Brenda Jo Bredemeier

A developmental theoretical approach is recommended as the most appropriate framework from which to study children's psychosocial experiences in sport. This perspective provides the best understanding of children's sport behaviors by focusing on ontogenetic changes in cognitive abilities which help to describe and explain behavioral variations among individuals. A content analysis of sport psychological research conducted on children and youth over the last decade reveals that few studies selected age groups for investigation that were based on underlying cognitive-developmental criteria. Thus, recommendations emanating from these studies may be misleading or inaccurate. Examples of developmental research from the psychological and sport psychological literature are provided to illustrate the potential for conducting further research on the psychosocial development of children in sport. Finally, guidelines for implementing a systematic line of research in sport psychology from a developmental perspective are outlined.

Restricted access

Dawn E. Stephens and Brenda Jo Light Bredemeier

Recent sport psychology research addressing athletic aggression has tended to focus either on the moral or the motivational dimensions of aggressive behavior. The current study utilized both moral and motivational constructs to investigate aggression in young soccer participants (N = 212) from two different age-group leagues: under 12 and under 14. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that players who described themselves as more likely to aggress against an opponent also were more likely to (a) identify a larger number of teammates who would aggress in a similar situation, (b) perceive their coach as placing greater importance on ego-oriented goals, and (c) choose situations featuring preconventional rather than conventional moral motives as more tempting for aggressive action. These results suggest that young athletes’ aggressive behavior is related to their team’s “moral atmosphere,” including team aggressive norms, players’ perceptions of these team norms and coach characteristics, and players’ moral motives for behavior.

Restricted access

Brenda Jo Bredemeier and David L. Shields

The observation that sport represents a unique context has been widely discussed, but social scientists have done little to empirically examine the moral adaptations of sport participants. In the present study, the divergence between levels of moral reasoning used to discuss hypothetical dilemmas set in sport and in everyday life contexts was investigated among 120 high school and collegiate basketball players, swimmers, and nonathletes. Protocols were scored according to Haan’s interactional model of moral development. It was found that levels of moral reasoning used to discuss sport dilemmas were lower than levels characterizing reasoning about issues within an everyday life context. Findings were discussed in terms of the specific social and moral context of sport experience.

Restricted access

Brenda Jo Bredemeier and David L. Shields

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the theoretical and empirical relationship between stages of moral reasoning and athletic aggression, and thus to offer a new model for the investigation of aggression in sport. In this pilot work, 22 female and 24 male basketball players’ moral reasoning levels were determined through the administration of Rest’s Defining Issues Test (DIT); athletic aggression measures included coaches’ ranking and ratings of player aggressiveness, and statistics pertaining to players’ fouls per season game. Significant judgment-action results were congruent with hypothesized relationships. The results are discussed within a cognitive-developmental framework.

Restricted access

David L. Shields and Brenda Jo Bredemeier

Restricted access

Brenda Jo Bredemeier and David L. Shields

The designation of an act as aggressive involves an implicit or explicit moral judgment. Consequently, research on aggression must address the value issues involved. The present article suggests that Haan’s theory of interactional morality can be used to provide a framework for social scientific research into moral issues. Haan’s model, however, must be adapted to the unique context of sport. This study applies the concept of frame analysis as a procedure for clarifying the moral reasoning associated with athletic aggression. In contrast to similar acts in everyday life, moral ambiguity characterizes some sport acts intended to deliver minor noxious stimuli. The label of aggression must be used with caution when designating such acts.

Restricted access

Maureen R. Weiss, Brenda Jo Bredemeier and Richard M. Shewchuk

The purpose of this study was to develop a scale of intrinsic/extrinsic motivation for use in the sport domain. Third- through sixth-grade boys and girls (N = 155) attending a children's summer sports camp were administered Harter's (1981b) measure of motivational orientation with items reworded to accommodate the sport setting. The data were then subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis for the purpose of testing the fit of the sport motivation data to the original 5-factor structural model identified by Harter for motivation in the cognitive domain. While the goodness-of-fit statistics suggested some resemblance, a number of other diagnostic indicators obtained from the analysis revealed that extensive modifications would be necessary before the Harter model could be considered an adequate representation of the underlying covariance structure of the sport motivation data. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in six interpretable factors that were somewhat different from Harter's original model in terms of hern loadings and factor structure. Moreover, the developmental trends in motivation for third- through sixth-grade children slightly deviated from those reported by Harter. Theoretical, practical, and methodological implications of this study are discussed.