Nina R. Sperber, Kelli D. Allen, Brenda M. DeVellis, Robert F. DeVellis, Megan A. Lewis and Leigh F. Callahan
The authors explored whether demographic and psychosocial variables predicted differences in physical activity for participants with arthritis in a trial of Active Living Every Day (ALED).
Participants (N = 280) from 17 community sites were randomized into ALED or usual care. The authors assessed participant demographic characteristics, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, pain, fatigue, and depressive symptoms at baseline and physical activity frequency at 20-wk follow-up. They conducted linear regression with interaction terms (Baseline Characteristic × Randomization Group).
Being female (p ≤ .05), less depressed (p ≤ .05), or younger (p ≤ .10) was associated with more frequent posttest physical activity for ALED participants than for those with usual care. Higher education was associated with more physical activity for both ALED and usual-care groups.
ALED was particularly effective for female, younger, and less depressed participants. Further research should determine whether modifications could produce better outcomes in other subgroups.
Nina Sperber, Katherine S. Hall, Kelli Allen, Brenda M. DeVellis, Megan Lewis and Leigh F. Callahan
Physical and psychological symptoms limit physical activity for people with arthritis. This study examined if self-efficacy mediated a relationship between symptom and physical activity (PA) frequency change.
This was a secondary analysis of older adults with arthritis and joint pain in a trial of a lifestyle PA program (n = 339). Measures were depressive symptoms, pain, fatigue, arthritis self-efficacy, PA self-efficacy, and PA frequency. A panel model was used to analyze relationships at baseline and changes at 20 weeks.
The mean age was 68.8 years. At baseline, depression and fatigue were associated with arthritis self-efficacy (β = –.34 and –.24) and, in turn, PA self-efficacy (β = .63); PA self-efficacy was associated with PA (β = .15). Pain and depression changes were associated with arthritis self-efficacy change (β = –.20 and –.21) and, in turn, PA self-efficacy (β = .32) change; PA self-efficacy change was associated with PA change (β = .36).
Change in symptom severity affected change in PA frequency. These relationships appeared to operate through self-efficacy. Over time, pain appeared to have a stronger relationship than fatigue with self-efficacy and PA. These findings support strategies to help people with arthritis strengthen their confidence for symptom coping and PA participation.
Lisa M. Quintiliani, Marci K. Campbell, J. Michael Bowling, Susan Steck, Pamela S. Haines and Brenda M. DeVellis
A better understanding of identifying tailoring variables would improve message design. Tailoring to a behavior that a participant selects as one they would like to work on may increase message relevance, and thus effectiveness. This trial compared 3 groups: message tailored to physical activity as a participant-selected topic (choice), message tailored to physical activity as an expert-determined topic (expert), or nontailored message (comparison).
408 female college students received web-delivered computer-tailored messages on physical activity. Outcomes were immediate and 1-month follow-up changes in psychosocial, goal-related, and behavioral variables related to physical activity.
Participants were predominately non-Hispanic White (73.8%). Change in self-efficacy and goal commitment at immediate follow-up and vigorous physical activity at 1-month follow-up was greater in the expert versus comparison group. Change in goal commitment at immediate follow-up was lower in the choice versus expert group. In the expert group, those choosing physical activity as their selected topic perceived the goal to be easier at immediate follow-up compared with those receiving unmatched messages.
Findings supported tailoring to an expert-determined topic. However, based on the beneficial change in perceived goal difficulty when topics matched, future research should encourage synchrony between participant-selected topics and expert recommendations.