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Brendon Hyndman

Background:

There is more demand than ever for schools to equip children with the necessary skills to be physically active. The purpose of the Environmental Perceptions Investigation of Children’s Physical Activity (EPIC-PA) study was to investigate elementary and secondary school children’s perceptions to enhance the school physical activity environment.

Methods:

Four Australian government schools (2 elementary and 2 secondary) were recruited for the EPIC-PA study. During the study, 78 children were recruited aged 10 to 13 years. The focus group discussions consisted of 54 children (32 elementary and 22 secondary) and the map drawing sessions included 24 children (17 elementary and 7 secondary).

Results:

The findings from the EPIC-PA study revealed insight into uniquely desired features to encourage physical activity such as adventure physical activity facilities (eg, rock climbing walls), recreational physical activity facilities (eg, jumping pillows), physical activity excursions, animal activity programs and teacher-directed activities. In addition to specific features, childrens revealed a host of policies for equipment borrowing, access to sports equipment/areas, music during physical activity time and external physical education lessons.

Conclusions:

Understanding the multiple suggestions from children of features to enhance physical activity can be used by schools and researchers to create environments conducive to physical activity participation.

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Stephen Harvey and Brendon Hyndman

Purpose: To date, there have been limited investigations relating to physical education (PE) professionals’ engagement in the use of Twitter. Consequently, the aim of the study was to investigate the reasons PE professionals use Twitter, with questions underpinned by Casey, Goodyear, and Armour’s three-level conceptual classification framework of Pedagogies of Technology. Method: The application of Leximancer text mining software was uniquely employed to text mine the survey data to determine the key themes and concepts. Results: It was discovered that PE professionals perceived the Twitter platform to be highly valuable to connect with others in the profession, learn from others, and share ideas (both within schools and more broadly) via a convenient, usable form of technology. Discussion/Conclusions: Understanding the reasons PE professionals use Twitter can provide a broader understanding for those contemplating the utilization of this platform and inform future Twitter/social media research directions for the field of PE.

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Shane Pill and Brendon Hyndman

In a games-based approach, the idea of understanding is located within the concept of games as decision-laden, problem-solving contexts. However, the concept of “understanding” is largely implicit in much of the germane literature. We are arguing for a more deliberate framework to approach the concept of understanding. We propose that the game-based approach to teaching physical education can be underpinned by the Gestalt psychological theoretical principles to provide students with more meaningful engagement in the process of learning to play games. The Gestalt psychological principles underpin the learning of games and sport through the Principle of Totality and the Principle of Psychological Isomorphism (Reproductive Thinking). The Gestalt psychological principles are underpinned by meaning-making, which is proposed as much “deeper” knowledge, developed over time, involving reflection, and agency. Although game-based approaches provide an alternative to technical and mechanical (progressive part) notions of what players need to know and do to be “skilled players,” in this paper, we question whether game-based approaches also encompass how students in physical education are learning with understanding.

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Brendon P. Hyndman and Stephen Harvey

Purpose: Limited research has been conducted relating to the use of social media during health and physical education teacher education. The aim of this study was to investigate preservice teachers’ perceptions of the value of using Twitter for health and physical education teacher education. Methods: Preservice teachers completed a qualitatively designed survey. Thematic analyses were conducted via Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software, aligned to self-determination theory. Results: Twitter was perceived to be valuable for the following motivational components: (a) autonomy (choice over professional development, latest ideas, and learning flexibility), (b) relatedness (enhancing communication, tailored collaborations, and receiving practical support), and (c) competence (transferring ideas to classes, increasing technological competence, and keeping ahead of other teachers). Yet there were concerns due to Twitter’s public exposure to undesired Twitter users (relatedness) and how to navigate the platform (competence). Discussion/Conclusions: The study provides guidance to health and physical education teacher education providers on how digital learning via Twitter can meet preservice teachers’ learning needs.

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Stephen Harvey, Obidiah Atkinson and Brendon P. Hyndman

Purpose: To investigate sports coaches’ Twitter use. Methods: Coaches (N = 310) from 22 countries and a range of sports completed an online survey. Quantitative survey data were analyzed descriptively and triangulated with qualitative data using Leximancer (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia) text mining software. Results: Most participants reported using Twitter for ≥3 years and accessed the platform multiple times per day. More than half participants agreed that using Twitter had positively impacted both their own confidence as a coach and their athletes/players/team’s performance. The strongest overall themes from the qualitative data revealed that Twitter helped sports coaches improve their practices through the sharing of information, connecting with other coaches, and building positivity into their interactions when supporting players. Discussion/Conclusion: Sports coaches perceive Twitter to be a highly valuable platform to network, collaborate, gain access to information, and share ideas and resources.

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Stephen Harvey, Jeffrey P. Carpenter and Brendon P. Hyndman

Social media sites (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, Voxer, Instagram, etc.) have become platforms for self-directed professional development and learning (PDL) for many educators, including physical educators and sports coaches. The aim of this chapter is to provide an introduction to this current monograph on physical educators’ and sports coaches’ social media use for PDL by presenting key issues and relevant literature, and previewing the chapters to follow. The chapter begins with a background discussion of social media, followed by brief literature reviews of PDL research in education and physical education and sport pedagogy, and research on social media use for PDL. Next, an overview of key theories and concepts used within the monograph is provided. The chapter concludes with individual summaries of the six empirical chapters of the monograph.

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Shane Pill, Brendon Hyndman, Brendan SueSee and John Williams

Purpose: The research applies a multidisciplinary perspective to create knowledge and insight about the opportunities that digital game design principles offer to physical education (PE) pedagogy. Methods: Data were initially collected through an appreciative inquiry (AI). AI offers an alternative research perspective to critical theory that has dominated the investigation of the work of PE teachers. This study uniquely used AI with a narrative approach and multidisciplinary analysis to examine two teachers’ use of digital game design pedagogy in PE. Results: It was found that the teachers were motivated to use digital game design principles to provide students with means to solve problems, manage learning motivations, evaluate progress, and gain control over their learning in ways that are not normally associated with the common PE method. Conclusion: The two examples provided illustrate the generative potential of AI research combined with a multidisciplinary perspective directed at examples of pedagogical change in PE.

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Brendon P. Hyndman, Amanda C. Benson, Shahid Ullah, Caroline F. Finch and Amanda Telford

Background:

Enjoyment and play during school lunchtime are correlated with children’s physical activity. Despite this, there is an absence of studies reporting children’s enjoyment of play during school lunchtime breaks. The purpose of this study was to examine the intraday and interday reliability of children’s enjoyment of school lunchtime play.

Methods:

Surveys used to assess children’s enjoyment of lunchtime play were distributed to and completed by 197 children (112 males, 85 females), aged 8–12 years attending an elementary school in Victoria, Australia. Children completed the surveys during class before lunch (expected enjoyment) and after lunch (actual enjoyment) for 5 days. The intra- and interday enjoyment of school lunchtime play reliability were determined using a weighted kappa.

Results:

Intraday kappa values ranged from fair (0.31) to substantial (0.75) within each of the 5 days (median kappa = 0.41). In comparison, “expected” (0.09–0.40; median 0.30) and “actual” (0.05–0.46; median 0.28) interday enjoyment of lunchtime play displayed low reliability.

Conclusions:

Children’s enjoyment of lunchtime play appears to be more consistent within days than across days. The findings suggest that assessment of children’s enjoyment of lunchtime play once on a single day would be representative of a particular day but not necessarily that particular school week.