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Managing Sports and Risk Management Strategies

Brian A. Turner

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The ESPN Effect: Exploring the Worldwide Leader in Sports

Brian A. Turner

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Organizational and Occupational Commitment, Intention to Leave, and Perceived Performance of Intercollegiate Coaches

Brian A. Turner and Packianathan Chelladurai

Three hundred twenty-eight intercollegiate coaches (men = 240, women = 88; Division I = 156, Division III = 172) responded to a questionnaire measuring commitment to their university and coaching occupation, intention to leave the organization and occupation, their team standings, and perceptions of their performance. The variables of division, gender, and marital/lifestyle status affected neither organizational nor occupational commitments. Organizational commitments of affective, normative, continuance: high sacrifice, and continuance: low alternatives correlated significantly with intention to leave the organization and cumulatively explained 23.7% of the variance. Affective, normative, and continuance: low alternatives forms of commitment to occupation correlated significantly with intention to leave the occupation and cumulatively explained 23.1% of the variance. The bases of organizational commitment cumulatively explained 5.6% and 4.9% of the variance in subjective and objective performances, respectively. Results suggest that athletic departments should focus on enhancing their coaches’ commitment to the organization in order to retain them.

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Anticipated Career Satisfaction, Affective Occupational Commitment, and Intentions to Enter the Sport Management Profession

George B. Cunningham, Michael Sagas, Marlene Dixon, Aubrey Kent, and Brian A. Turner

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of internships on students’ career-related affect and intentions. Data were gathered from 138 upper-level undergraduate sport management students (71 interns, 67 noninterns). A doubly multivariate repeated measures model indicated that, although they did not differ at the beginning of the internship, interns had less positive attitudes toward the profession than did noninterns at the end of the internship. Structural equation modeling indicated that affective occupational commitment fully mediated the relationship between anticipated career satisfaction and intentions to enter the profession. The results contribute to the extant literature by demonstrating that internships can influence career-related affect and intentions.

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Forty Years of BIRGing: New Perspectives on Cialdini’s Seminal Studies

Jonathan A. Jensen, Brian A. Turner, Jeffrey James, Chad McEvoy, Chad Seifried, Elizabeth Delia, T. Christopher Greenwell, Stephen Ross, and Patrick Walsh

Published 4 decades ago, “Basking in Reflected Glory: Three (Football) Field Studies” (Cialdini et al., 1976) is the most influential study of sport consumer behavior. This article features re-creations of Studies 1 and 2, exactly 40 years after the original publication. The results of Study 1 were reproduced, with participants more than twice as likely to wear school-affiliated apparel after wins and 55% less likely after losses. The study also extends the BIRGing literature in its investigation of the influence of gender and the effect’s salience over time. Study 2’s results were not reproduced. However, study participants were significantly more likely to use first-person plural pronouns, providing further empirical evidence of BIRGing behaviors. This article makes a novel contribution to the sport consumer behavior literature by advancing the study of one of the field’s most foundational theories and serving as an impetus for future investigations of BIRGing motivations.