The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of post-exercise macronutrient intake on weight loss, protein metabolism, and endurance exercise performance during a period of increased training volume. Ten healthy young female endurance athletes performed 4 60-min bouts of cycle ergometry at ~65% of V̇O2peak on 4 days (day 1, 3, 4, and 6) during 2 separate 1-week periods. On day 7. participants performed a ride to exhaustion at ~75% of V̇O2peak. One of the 7-day periods served as a control condition, where a placebo beverage was consumed following the exercise bouts on days 1, 3, 4, and 6 (CON). During the other 7-day protocol (POST), participants consumed a predefined formula beverage with added carbohydrate following the exercise bouts on days 1. 3,4, and 6. Energy intake and macronutrient proportions were the same between the 2 trials; the only difference was the timing at which the macronutrients were consumed. Calculated fat oxidation was greater during exercise on day 6 during POST as compared to CON (p < .05). Glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly higher (p < .05) following exercise during POST as compared to CON. There was a trend (p = .06) for nitrogen balance to be greater on days 5 and 6 with POST as compared to CON. Time to exhaustion during exercise on day 7 was longer during POST as compared to CON (p < .05). POST resulted in a maintenance of body weight during the 7-day protocol, while there was a significant (p < .05) reduction with CON. It was concluded that post-exercise macronutrient intake following endurance exercise can attenuate reductions in body weight and improve nitrogen balance during 7 days of increased energy expenditure. Importantly, post-exercise supplementation improved time to exhaustion during a subsequent bout of endurance exercise.
Brian D. Roy, Katherine Luttmer, Michael J. Bosman and Mark A. Tarnopolsky
Darren G. Burke, Darren G. Candow, Philip D. Chilibeck, Lauren G. MacNeil, Brian D. Roy, Mark A. Tarnopolsky and Tim Ziegenfuss
The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) content resulting from resistance-exercise training (RET) and creatine supplementation (CR). Male (n = 24) and female (n = 18) participants with minimal resistance-exercise-training experience (≥1 year) who were participating in at least 30 min of structured physical activity (i.e., walking, jogging, cycling) 3–5 ×/wk volunteered for the study. Participants were randomly assigned in blocks (gender) to supplement with creatine (CR: 0.25 g/kg lean-tissue mass for 7 days; 0.06 g/kg lean-tissue mass for 49 days; n = 22, 12 males, 10 female) or isocaloric placebo (PL: n = 20, 12 male, 8 female) and engage in a whole-body RET program for 8 wk. Eighteen participants were classified as vegetarian (lacto-ovo or vegan; CR: 5 male, 5 female; PL: 3 male, 5 female). Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were taken before and after the intervention and analyzed for IGF-I using standard immunohistochemical procedures. Stained muscle cross-sections were examined microscopically and IGF-I content quantified using image-analysis software. Results showed that RET increased intramuscular IGF-I content by 67%, with greater accumulation from CR (+78%) than PL (+54%; p = .06). There were no differences in IGF-I between vegetarians and nonvegetarians. These findings indicate that creatine supplementation during resistance-exercise training increases intramuscular IGF-I concentration in healthy men and women, independent of habitual dietary routine.