In the monkey, reaction time in a precued delayed response task was found to be faster when the animals had to remember the precue than when it was continually available (Smyrnis, Taira, Ashe, & Georgopoulos, 1992). We investigated whether this reflects a general principle that applies to all types of precued tasks. However, we found the opposite result in a simpler task in humans. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effect of a memory requirement on reaction time in the monkey may reflect an effect of task difficulty, rather than a fundamental process involved in all precued movement tasks.
Louise Parr-Brownlie, Jeffrey Wickens, J. Greg Anson, and Brian Hyland
J. Greg Anson, Brian l. Hyland, Rolf Kötter, and Jeffery R. Wickens
A movement task was used to investigate the effects of precued variables on reaction time. The task involved rapid rotation of a hand-held manipulandum to target locations and required either pronation or supination of the forearm through short or long extent. The effects on reaction time of precues signalling target direction, extent, or a combination of direction and extent, were measured. The longest reaction times occurred when no information about direction or extent was provided in the precue (all parameters uncertain). Complete prior specification of target position produced the shortest reaction times. Specification of direction when extent was uncertain produced a significantly larger reduction in reaction time than specification of extent when direction was uncertain. Prior specification of extent also produced a small but significant reduction in reaction time relative to the condition in which direction and extent were specified in a mutually conditional manner. The results are discussed in relation to parameter precuing and motor programming, in which the direction is programmed by the pre-selection of neurons representing the muscles to be used in the task while programming of extent is represented by their level of activity during task performance.
Amir A. Mohagheghi, J. Greg Anson, Brian I. Hyland, Louise Parr-Brownlie, and Jeffrey R. Wickens
The effect of foreperiod length on reaction time in memorized (MM) and nonmemorized (NM), precued, delayed responses was investigated. Six subjects participated in one long and one short foreperiod schedule testing session. An aiming task, using elbow supination/pronation, in response to a visual stimulus was employed. In the MM condition, target spatial information was available for a fraction of the foreperiod duration. In the NM condition, target information was available continuously until the subject attained the target position. Subjects responded with a significantly longer latency in the long foreperiod schedule. Within each foreperiod schedule, the shortest foreperiod resulted in significantly longer reaction time. However, the absolute value of foreperiod did not have a major effect on reaction time latency. Memorization and nonmemorization conditions did not affect reaction time.