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Jerry Mayo, Brian Lyons, Kendal Honea, John Alvarez and Richard Byrum

Context:

Rehabilitation specialists should understand cardiovascular responses to different movement patterns.

Objective:

To investigate physiological responses to forward- (FM), backward- (BM), and lateral-motion (LM) exercise at self-selected intensities.

Design:

Within-subjects design to test independent variable, movement pattern; repeated-measures ANOVA to analyze oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), respiratory-exchange ratio (RER), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE).

Participants:

10 healthy women.

Results:

VO2 and HR were significantly higher during LM than during FM and BM exercise. The respective VO2 (ml · kg · min–1) and HR (beats/min) values for each condition were FM 25.19 ± 3.6, 142 ± 11; BM 24.24 ± 2.7, 145 ± 12; and LM 30.5 ± 4.6, 160 ± 13. No differences were observed for RER or RPE.

Conclusions:

At self-selected intensities all 3 modes met criteria for maintaining cardiovascular fitness. Practitioners can use these results to develop rehabilitation programs based on clients’ perception and level of discomfort

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Kris Beattie, Brian P. Carson, Mark Lyons and Ian C. Kenny

Maximum- and reactive-strength qualities both have important roles in athletic movements and sporting performance. Very little research has investigated the relationship between maximum strength and reactive strength. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maximum-strength (isometric midthigh-pull peak force [IMTP PF]) and reactive-strength (drop-jump reactive-strength index [DJ-RSI]) variables at 0.3-m, 0.4-m, 0.5-m, and 0.6-m box heights. A secondary aim was to investigate the between- and within-group differences in reactive-strength characteristics between relatively stronger athletes (n = 11) and weaker athletes (n = 11). Forty-five college athletes across various sports were recruited to participate in the study (age, 23.7 ± 4.0 y; mass, 87.5 ± 16.1 kg; height, 1.80 ± 0.08 m). Pearson correlation results showed that there was a moderate association (r = .302–.431) between maximum-strength variables (absolute, relative, and allometric scaled PF) and RSI at 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 m (P ≤ .05). In addition, 2-tailed independent-samples t tests showed that the RSIs for relatively stronger athletes (49.59 ± 2.57 N/kg) were significantly larger than those of weaker athletes (33.06 ± 2.76 N/kg) at 0.4 m (Cohen d = 1.02), 0.5 m (d = 1.21), and 0.6 m (d = 1.39) (P ≤ .05). Weaker athletes also demonstrated significant decrements in RSI as eccentric stretch loads increased at 0.3-m through 0.6-m box heights, whereas stronger athletes were able to maintain their reactive-strength ability. This research highlights that in specific sporting scenarios, when there are high eccentric stretch loads and fast stretch-shortening-cycle demands, athletes’ reactive-strength ability may be dictated by their relative maximal strength, specifically eccentric strength.

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Kris Beattie, Brian P. Carson, Mark Lyons and Ian C. Kenny

Cycling economy (CE), power output at maximal oxygen uptake (WV̇O2max), and anaerobic function (ie, sprinting ability) are considered the best physiological performance indicators in elite road cyclists. In addition to cardiovascular function, these physiological indicators are partly dictated by neuromuscular factors. One technique to improve neuromuscular function in athletes is through strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 20-wk maximal- and explosive-strength-training intervention on strength (maximal strength, explosive strength, and bike-specific explosive strength), WV̇O2max, CE, and body composition (body mass, fat and lean mass) in cyclists. Fifteen competitive road cyclists were divided into an intervention group (endurance training and strength training: n = 6; age, 38.0 ± 10.2 y; weight, 69.1 ± 3.6 kg; height, 1.77 ± 0.04 m) and a control group (endurance training only: n = 9; age, 34.8 ± 8.5 y; weight, 72.5 ± 7.2 kg; height, 1.78 ± 0.05 m). The intervention group strength-trained for 20 wk. Each participant completed 3 assessments: physiology (CE, WV̇O2max, power at 2 and 4 mmol/L blood lactate), strength (isometric midthigh pull, squat-jump height, and 6-s bike-sprint peak power), and body composition (body mass, fat mass, overall leanness, and leg leanness). The results showed significant between- and within-group changes in the intervention group for maximal strength, bike-specific explosive strength, absolute WV̇O2max, body mass, overall leanness, and leg leanness at wk 20 (P < .05). The control group showed no significant within-group changes in measures of strength, physiology, or body composition. This study demonstrates that 20 wk of strength training can significantly improve maximal strength, bike-specific explosive strength, and absolute WV̇O2max in competitive road cyclists.

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John Henderson, Brian C. Lyons, W. Steven Tucker and Ben Davidson

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cloth wrap (CW) and ankle tape (TAP) techniques on vertical jump performance in 29 Division I football players. There was a significant reduction in vertical jump performance for both the TAP (76.2 ± 1.3 cm; t28= 6.5, p < .0005) and CW (77.3 ± 1.3 cm; t28= 3.9, p = .001) conditions as compared with the control (78.4 ± 1.3 cm). The TAP group also had reduced vertical jump scores as compared with the CW group (t28= 4.9, p < .0005). Both prophylactic techniques resulted in decreased vertical jump capability with the TAP having a greater negative impact than the CW.