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Brian Sutton-Smith

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J. Pearson and Brian Sutton-Smith

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Joseph Ray, Jimmy Smith and Brian Fowler

Social media has become a powerful source of sports information. The uncertainty of outcomes of a sporting event is a contributing factor to fan satisfaction, which in turn affects fans’ social-media habits. If teams can determine specific factors that affect these social-media habits, marketing conclusions can be drawn. The current research followed the Twitter accounts of 4 National Hockey League (NHL) teams throughout the 2015 NHL postseason to observe changes in fan engagement. The results displayed increasing growth during each subsequent round of the Stanley Cup playoffs, which indicates an advantageous time to gain fans and develop brand loyalty. The current research showed that retweets and favorites earned on team tweets were shown to have the greatest correlation to followers gained. The growth demonstrated during the postseason provides sports organizations the opportunity to cultivate a strong and loyal following for their teams through strategic marketing initiatives.

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Gerald A. Smith and Brian S. Heagy

A project involving 3-D analysis of skiing technique during the 1992 Olympic Winter Games (Albertville, France) was carried out. This part of the project focused on the open field skating technique of the male skiers of the 50-km race. Three synchronized, high-speed video cameras were used to record the motion of all racers as they passed a site on flat terrain. Analysis was limited to those using the open field technique and whose skating cycle fit within the boundaries of the field being analyzed (n = 17). Several kinematic variables were determined: cycle velocity, cycle length, and cycle rate. Several significant correlations (p < .05) were observed related to performance: cycle velocity was positively related to cycle length (r = .76) but not cycle rate; cycle velocity and cycle length were positively related to strong side knee extension (r = .48 and r = .51, respectively). Thus, faster skiers on flat terrain tended to ski with longer cycle lengths, which perhaps derived from more vigorous knee extension.

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Mark S. Sklansky, James M. Pivarnik, E. O’Brian Smith, Jody Morris and J. Timothy Bricker

The effects of exercise training on hemodynamics and on the prevalence of arrhythmias in 11 asymptomatic children following tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair were investigated. Training consisted of three 30-min supervised exercise sessions per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Each subject exercised on a cycle ergometer and/or treadmill at 60–80% of measured peak heart rate (HR). Submaximal HR decreased (p < .0016), and maximal treadmill time increased, in every patient (p < .0004). Small decreases occurred in submaximal cardiac output (CO) (p < .094), VO2 (p < .047), and respiratory rate (RR) (p < .053). No significant change occurred in peak HR, peak VO2, or in resting LV end-diastolic dimension or posterior wall thickness. No significant change occurred in atrial or ventricular ectopy. It was concluded that young active children following repair of TOF can demonstrate aerobic training effects with an 8-week exercise program of three 30-minute sessions of moderately intense aerobic activity per week.

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Jenni M. Felder, Louise M. Burke, Brian J. Lowdon, David Cameron-Smith and Gregory R. Collier

The aim of this study was to assess the dietary practices of 10 elite female surfers. Four- and five-day food diaries completed over competition and training periods demonstrated energy intakes (mean ± SD) of 9,468 kJ (±2,007) and 8,397 kJ (±1,831), respectively. This level of energy intake was less than that estimated for the requirements of surfing. Female surfers' carbohydrate intakes failed to meet the recommendations, and suboptimal zinc intake was observed with 90% of subjects not meeting the Australian RDI. Comparisons between competition and training demonstrated that carbohydrate (g and g/kg body weight) and confectionary (g) intakes were significantly higher (p < .05) and protein intake was significantly lower (p < .05) during competition. These results show that although body fat stores were not compromised (mean 22%), self-reported energy, carbohydrate, and nutrient intakes were marginal in elite female surfers. Questionnaires revealed that 90% of surfers did not have good nutritional habits while traveling, which was compounded by a lack of knowledge of nutritional practices.

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Goeran Fiedler, Brooke Slavens, Roger O. Smith, Douglas Briggs and Brian J. Hafner

Prosthesis-integrated sensors are appealing for use in clinical settings where gait analysis equipment is unavailable, but accurate knowledge of patients’ performance is desired. Data obtained from load cells (inferring joint moments) may aid clinicians in the prescription, alignment, and gait rehabilitation of persons with limb loss. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of prosthesis-integrated load cells for routine use in clinical practice. Level ground walking of persons with transtibial amputation was concurrently measured with a commercially available prosthesis-integrated load cell, a 10-camera motion analysis system, and piezoelectric force plates. Ankle and knee flexion/extension moments were derived and measurement methods were compared via correlation analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.661 for ankle pronation/supination moments to 0.915 for ankle flexion/extension moments (P < .001). Root mean squared errors between measurement methods were in the magnitude of 10% of the measured range and were explainable. Differences in results depicted differences between systems in definition and computation of measurement variables. They may not limit clinical use of the load cell, but should be considered when data are compared directly to conventional gait analysis data. Construct validity of the load cell (ie, ability to measure joint moments in-situ) is supported by the study results.

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Sherry L. Pagoto, Kristin L. Schneider, Jessica Oleski, Brian Smith and Michael Bauman


The present feasibility study describes engagement and spread of a Twitter-based core-strengthening challenge.


A challenge that entailed completing a core-strengthening exercise using a hashtag (#PlankADay) was circulated via Twitter. This study surveyed users who joined during the first 2 months of the challenge to describe their characteristics, including social support for exercise and to what extent they invited others to join. The study continued to track total users for 10 months.


Of 407 individuals who joined in the first 2 months, 105 completed surveys. Among these, 81% were female and 86% white and mean age was 35.8. 72% participated for at least 1 month and 47% participated for at least 2 months. Survey participants reported that the challenge increased their enjoyment of abdominal exercise. Of the 68% of participants who invited others to participate, 28% recruited none, 66% recruited 1–5 users, and 6% recruited 10 or more users. Participants reported that online friends provided as much positive social support for exercise as family and in-person friends. In 14 months, 4941 users produced 76,746 tweets and mean total tweets per user was 15.86 (SD = 75.34; range = 1–2888).


Online social networks may be a promising mechanism to spread brief exercise behaviors.

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Jean L. McCrory, David R. Lemmon, H. Joseph Sommer, Brian Prout, Damon Smith, Deborah W. Korth, Javier Lucero, Michael Greenisen, Jim Moore, Inessa Kozlovskaya, Igor Pestov, Victor Stepansov, Yevgeny Miyakinchenko and Peter R. Cavanagh

A treadmill with vibration isolation and stabilization designed for the International Space Station (ISS) was evaluated during Shuttle mission STS-81. Three crew members ran and walked on the device, which floats freely in zero gravity. For the majority of the more than 2 hours of locomotion studied, the treadmill showed peak to peak Linear and angular displacements of less than 2.5 cm and 2.5°, respectively. Vibration transmitted to the vehicle was within the microgravity allocation limits that are defined for the ISS. Refinements to the treadmill and harness system are discussed. This approach to treadmill design offers the possibility of generating 1G-like loads on the lower extremities while preserving the microgravity environment of the ISS for structural safety and vibration free experimental conditions.