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Does Commitment Develop in the Same Manner for Male and Female Coaches? An Examination of Personal and Job Characteristic Antecedents

Brian Turner

Over the years, many researchers have examined organizational commitment and how it develops. However, few have looked at differences in antecedents of commitment based on gender. Three hundred and twenty-eight athletic coaches (women = 88; men = 240) from Divisions I (n = 156) and III (n = 172) responded to a questionnaire that measured four bases of organizational commitment (affective [AC], normative [NC], continuance-high sacrifice [CC:HiSac], and continuance-low number of alternatives [CC:LoAlt]) and two specific groups of antecedents (personal characteristics and job characteristics). Differences between male and female respondents were examined to determine if their commitment developed in similar manners. The regression equation with all four job characteristic variables was significantly related to the bases of organizational commitment, cumulatively explaining 37.9% of the variance in females’ NC and 29.6% of the variance in women’s AC; for men, the job characteristic variables explained 30.0% and 24.4% for NC and AC, respectively. In addition, the regression equation with all four personal characteristic variables was significant for CC:HiSac for both male and female coaches. Overall, employer commitment was the job characteristic variable that had the greatest effect on organizational commitment for both men and women.

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The ESPN Effect: Exploring the Worldwide Leader in Sports

Brian A. Turner

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Managing Sports and Risk Management Strategies

Brian A. Turner

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Increasing Response Rates among Coaches: The Role of Prenotification Methods

Aubrey Kent and Brian Turner

This study determined whether, in a population of intercollegiate head coaches, prenotification had a significant influence on the return rate of mailed questionnaires. Acknowledging the growing use of e-mail and the Internet for survey distribution, the current study evaluated the effectiveness of e-mail as a prenotification technique, Response rates of Intercollegiate Head Coaches to mailed questionnaires from two separate samples were analyzed. Comparisons were made based upon the categorization of coaches into groups of prenotification by e-mail, formal letter, and a non-prenotified control group. Results indicated that prenotification of the survey recipients significantly increased response rates, with the group receiving e-mail prenotification having the highest response rate among the three groups. In addition to being cost effective for researchers, e-mail prenotification was an effective way to increase both the number and variety of contacts with survey recipients.

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Organizational and Occupational Commitment, Intention to Leave, and Perceived Performance of Intercollegiate Coaches

Brian A. Turner and Packianathan Chelladurai

Three hundred twenty-eight intercollegiate coaches (men = 240, women = 88; Division I = 156, Division III = 172) responded to a questionnaire measuring commitment to their university and coaching occupation, intention to leave the organization and occupation, their team standings, and perceptions of their performance. The variables of division, gender, and marital/lifestyle status affected neither organizational nor occupational commitments. Organizational commitments of affective, normative, continuance: high sacrifice, and continuance: low alternatives correlated significantly with intention to leave the organization and cumulatively explained 23.7% of the variance. Affective, normative, and continuance: low alternatives forms of commitment to occupation correlated significantly with intention to leave the occupation and cumulatively explained 23.1% of the variance. The bases of organizational commitment cumulatively explained 5.6% and 4.9% of the variance in subjective and objective performances, respectively. Results suggest that athletic departments should focus on enhancing their coaches’ commitment to the organization in order to retain them.

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Classroom-Based Physical Activity: Minimizing Disparities in School-Day Physical Activity Among Elementary School Students

Hannah G. Calvert, Matthew T. Mahar, Brian Flay, and Lindsey Turner

Background: Evidence of the positive effects of school physical activity (PA) interventions, including classroom-based PA (CBPA), is rapidly growing. However, few studies examine how variations in scheduled PA opportunities and teacher-implemented CBPA affect students’ PA outcomes. Methods: Teachers at 5 elementary schools attended training on how to implement CBPA. Data on school-day PA opportunities [physical education (PE), recess, and CBPA] were obtained via calendar and teacher-recorded CBPA logs. Daily step counts were measured via accelerometry in 1346 students across 65 classrooms in first through fifth grades. Results: PE, recess, and CBPA contributed significantly to students’ daily steps. Males accrued more steps than females over the school day, during PE, and during recess. No gender disparity was seen in the amount of additional steps accrued during CBPA. Overall step counts were lower among fifth-grade students versus first-grade students, but CBPA attenuated this difference such that grade-level differences were not significant in fifth-grade students who received CBPA. Conclusions: Gender disparities in step totals were present on PE and recess days, but not on CBPA days. CBPA appears to provide equal PA benefits for both genders and to potentially minimize the decline in PA among older students.

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Anticipated Career Satisfaction, Affective Occupational Commitment, and Intentions to Enter the Sport Management Profession

George B. Cunningham, Michael Sagas, Marlene Dixon, Aubrey Kent, and Brian A. Turner

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of internships on students’ career-related affect and intentions. Data were gathered from 138 upper-level undergraduate sport management students (71 interns, 67 noninterns). A doubly multivariate repeated measures model indicated that, although they did not differ at the beginning of the internship, interns had less positive attitudes toward the profession than did noninterns at the end of the internship. Structural equation modeling indicated that affective occupational commitment fully mediated the relationship between anticipated career satisfaction and intentions to enter the profession. The results contribute to the extant literature by demonstrating that internships can influence career-related affect and intentions.

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Forty Years of BIRGing: New Perspectives on Cialdini’s Seminal Studies

Jonathan A. Jensen, Brian A. Turner, Jeffrey James, Chad McEvoy, Chad Seifried, Elizabeth Delia, T. Christopher Greenwell, Stephen Ross, and Patrick Walsh

Published 4 decades ago, “Basking in Reflected Glory: Three (Football) Field Studies” (Cialdini et al., 1976) is the most influential study of sport consumer behavior. This article features re-creations of Studies 1 and 2, exactly 40 years after the original publication. The results of Study 1 were reproduced, with participants more than twice as likely to wear school-affiliated apparel after wins and 55% less likely after losses. The study also extends the BIRGing literature in its investigation of the influence of gender and the effect’s salience over time. Study 2’s results were not reproduced. However, study participants were significantly more likely to use first-person plural pronouns, providing further empirical evidence of BIRGing behaviors. This article makes a novel contribution to the sport consumer behavior literature by advancing the study of one of the field’s most foundational theories and serving as an impetus for future investigations of BIRGing motivations.