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Brianna L. Newland and Laurence Chalip

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Stacy Warner, Brianna L. Newland and B. Christine Green

Volunteers provide an essential human resource to sport organizations. Yet measures of motivation and satisfaction have had limited impact on an organization’s ability to improve their volunteer systems. This study applied the Kano Method to categorize volunteers’ perceptions of their experience into four dimensions of satisfaction: Attractive (or Satisfiers), Must-Be’s (or Dissatisfiers), One-Dimensional, and Indifferent. Four types of volunteers (44 sport continuous, 47 sport episodic, 49 nonsport continuous, 176 nonsport episodic) completed a web questionnaire including 26-paired features of their experience, 26 motives, and five key outcome measures. Although motives were deemed important, alone they were poor predictors of key outcomes and were unrelated to satisfaction. Volunteers in the four contexts classified the 26 features in different ways. No Must-Be’s (dissatisfiers) were identified by any group. Although most features were identified as Attractive, the distribution of One-Dimensional and Indifferent features varied by context. One-dimensional items were only identified among features categorized as Supportive Culture, Clear Direction, and Contribution. These features should be prioritized as managers improve volunteer management systems. The Kano Method extends our understanding of the volunteer experience by providing researchers with a tool to distinguish the way volunteers conceptualize their experience. From a practical standpoint, it provides volunteer managers with an additional tool in their efforts to recruit and retain volunteers by prioritizing features that will most immediately impact volunteers.

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Brianna L. Newland, Laurence Chalip and John L. Ivy

To determine whether athletes are confused about supplementation, this study examines the relative levels of adult runners’ and triathletes’ preferences for postexercise recovery drink attributes (price, fat, taste, scientific evidence, and endorsement by a celebrity athlete), and the ways those preferences segment. It then examines the effect of athlete characteristics on segment and drink choice. Only a plurality of athletes (40.6%) chose a carbohydrate-protein postexercise recovery drink (the optimal choice), despite the fact that they valued scientific evidence highly. Athletes disliked or were indifferent to endorsement by a celebrity athlete, moderately disliked fat, and slightly preferred better tasting products. Cluster analysis of part-worths from conjoint analysis identified six market segments, showing that athletes anchored on one or two product attributes when choosing among alternatives. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that media influence, hours trained, market segment, gender, and the athlete’s sport significantly predicted drink choice, and that segment partially mediated the effect of sport on drink choice. Findings demonstrate confusion among athletes when there are competing products that each claim to support their training.

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Jules Woolf, Brennan K. Berg, Brianna L. Newland and B. Christine Green

Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a rapidly growing combat sport with unique development procedures unlike most traditional sports. In this study the development processes at an exemplar MMA gym were examined. Institutional work theory was used to understand how and why the sport is being developed in this setting. The results provide a microlevel account of the processes and operation of the sport as it develops, and indicate that traditional sport development models may not adequately represent all sports. Subcultural values reflecting what it takes to be a fighter along with a fighter’s duty to the gym influence recruitment, retention, and transition strategies of athletes. Two forms of institutional work, refinement and barrier work, were identified as simultaneously aiding and hindering the development of the sport. Along with furthering institutional theory research, this study contributes to the discourse on alternative ways of sport development for MMA and emergent sports.