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Brigid Byrd and Jeffrey J. Martin

The purpose of this cross sectional study was to predict feelings of belonging and social responsibility based on climate perceptions of youth participating in a middle school running program. Method: Seventy-four youth from a middle school track and cross country program in the Midwest participated. Results: Based on multiple regression analyses we predicted 52% of the variance in feelings of belonging largely due to perceptions of leadership emotional support and task climate and 25% of the variance in feelings of social responsibility largely due to perceptions of a caring climate. Conclusions: Our findings support the importance of middle school running programs which offered an environment allowing multiple psychosocial benefits, such as nurturing feelings of belonging and social responsibility.

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Jeffrey J. Martin, Brigid Byrd, Michele Lewis Watts and Maana Dent

The purpose of the current study was to predict both general and sport-specific quality of life using measures of grit, hardiness, and resilience. Seventy-five adults (74 men, 1 woman) who are wheelchair basketball athletes participated in the current study. Twenty-six percent of the variance in life satisfaction was accounted for. Both hardiness and resilience accounted for meaningful variance, as indicated by their significant beta weights. Twenty-two percent of the variance in sport engagement was predicted; resilience and grit accounted for meaningful variance, as indicated by their significant beta weight. The regression results indicate that athletes reporting the highest levels of grit and resilience tended to also be the most engaged in their sport, and athletes with high levels of hardiness and resilience reported the highest quality of life. The descriptive results support an affirmation model of disability for the current sample of wheelchair athletes in that they reported moderate to strong levels of resiliency, grit, hardiness, sport engagement, and a high quality of life.

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Brigid Byrd, Tamara Hew-Butler and Jeffrey J. Martin

The purpose of the study was to assess changes in multidimensional physical self-concept (PSC) over time of novice obese female runners participating in a 10-week running intervention. Multidimensional Physical Self-Concept was assessed at pre- and postintervention times and 3 months postintervention. A repeated measures MANOVA was significant, F (2, 7) = 8.82, p < .05. Follow-up tests indicated that 4 of the 9 PSCs significantly changed from Time 1 to Time 2 (p < .05) in the expected directions for physical activity (t = -2.45; h2 = 1.0), body fat (t = Ò3.21; h2 = 0.78), endurance (t = -3.75; h2 = 0.90), and general physical (t = -2.36; h2 = 0.99) self-concepts and these positive changes were maintained 3 months later at Time 3. We found that a 10-week running program appeared to produce positive changes in physical self-concept. Importantly, these positive changes were sustained for 3 months past the end of the intervention. These findings suggest that women running programs may be a viable way to increase physical self-concept, and sustain such positive changes in months following.

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Kari Roethlisberger, Vista Beasley, Jeffrey Martin, Brigid Byrd, Krista Munroe-Chandler and Irene Muir

The purpose of this study was to identify sport-specific predictors of youth female athletes’ sport commitment and sport enjoyment. Based on the expectancy-value model, athletic identity and gender stereotypes were hypothesized to predict sport commitment and sport enjoyment in ice hockey, which has a masculine gender association. Participants consisted of 130 (89.2% Caucasian) youth female ice hockey players (M age = 11.7, SD = 2.6). They completed measures of athletic identity; personal gender beliefs; perceived gender beliefs of parents, teammates, siblings, and the general population; and two outcome measures: sport commitment and sport enjoyment. The prediction model for sport commitment was significant, F(7, 122) = 9.56, p < .001, and accounted for 35.4% of the variance. The prediction model for sport enjoyment was also significant, F(7, 122) = 2.25, p < .01, and accounted for 11.5% of the variance. Overall, youth female ice hockey players held pro-feminine beliefs about competence and values of girls in hockey. Participants’ personal gender beliefs correlated moderately with perceived gender beliefs of their (socializers) parents, teammates, and the general population (r = .54–.56), suggesting youth female ice hockey players’ pro-feminine beliefs might be informed by these social influences. However, two multiple mediation analyses found no support for the hypotheses that personally held stereotypes mediated the link between all four socially based gender stereotypes and enjoyment and commitment.