This study examined substrate use during exercise in early-pubertal (EP), mid-pubertal (MP), late-pubertal (LP), and young-adult (YA) males. Fuel use was calculated using the RER and VO2 response during cycling exercise at 30 to 70% of VO2peak. Significant group by intensity interactions were found for lactate, RER, percent CHO, and fat use, in addition to fat and CHO oxidation rates, which suggest a maturation effect on substrate use during exercise. While significance was not achieved at all intensities, post hoc analyses revealed greater fat use, lower CHO use, and lower lactate concentrations in EP and MP compared to LP or YA. No differences were noted between EP and MP or LP and YA at any intensity, suggesting the development of an adult-like metabolic profile occurs between mid- to late-puberty and is complete by the end of puberty.
Brooke R. Stephens, Andrew S. Cole and Anthony D. Mahon
Michael P. Rogowski, Justin P. Guilkey, Brooke R. Stephens, Andrew S. Cole and Anthony D. Mahon
This study examined the influence of maturation on the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) in healthy male subjects. Seventy-six healthy male subjects (8–27 yr) were divided into groups based on maturation status: prepubertal (PP), midpubertal (MP), late-pubertal (LP), and young-adult (YA) males. Puberty status was determined by physical examination. Subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer to determine OUES. Group differences were assessed using a one-way ANOVA. OUES values (VO2L·min1/log10VEL·min−1) were lower in PP and MP compared with LP and YA (p < .05). When OUES was expressed relative to body mass (VO2mL·kg−1·min−1/log10VEmL·kg−1·min−1) differences between groups reversed whereby PP and MP had higher mass relative OUES values compared with LP and YA (p < .05). Adjusting OUES by measures of body mass failed to eliminate differences across maturational groups. This suggests that qualitative factors, perhaps related to oxidative metabolism, account for the responses observed in this study.
Thomas M. Stephens II, Brooke R. Lawson, Dale E. DeVoe and Raoul F. Reiser II
Expectations may be for both legs to function identically during single- and double-leg vertical jumps. However, several reasons might prevent this from occurring. The goals of this investigation were twofold: assess the presence of side-to-side jump height differences during single-leg jumps in a homogenous group of healthy subjects and determine if those with a jump height asymmetry possessed consistent biomechanical differences during single- and double-leg jumps. Thirteen men and 12 women with competitive volleyball experience volunteered for the study. Significance was assessed at p < 0.05. The men jumped significantly higher than the women in all conditions and possessed differences in several anthropometric, kinematic, and kinetic parameters. Based on a three-jump average, all subjects had one leg that they could jump higher with (the dominant leg, DL). The men generated significantly greater maximum ground reaction forces and ankle joint powers on their DL whereas the women had no differences during the single-leg jumps. The only side-to-side differences that existed during the double-leg jumps were in the average ground reaction forces during propulsion. These findings suggest that equality of single-leg jump performance is the exception rather than the norm, with identification of consistent biomechanical attributes difficult within a group. Furthermore, any differences are not likely to cross over to other tasks, with men and women utilizing slightly different jump techniques.
Steven K. Malin, Brooke R. Stephens, Carrie G. Sharoff, Todd A. Hagobian, Stuart R. Chipkin and Barry Braun
Exercise and metformin may prevent or delay Type 2 diabetes by, in part, raising the capacity for fat oxidation. Whether the addition of metformin has additive effects on fat oxidation during and after exercise is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of metformin on substrate oxidation during and after exercise. Using a double-blind, counter-balanced crossover design, substrate oxidation was assessed by indirect calorimetry in 15 individuals taking metformin (2,000 mg/d) and placebo for 8–10 d. Measurements were made during cycle exercise at 5 submaximal cycle workloads, starting at 30% peak work (Wpeak) and increasing by 10% every 8 min to 70% Wpeak. Substrate oxidation was also measured for 50 min postexercise. Differences between conditions were assessed using analysis of variance with repeated measures, and values are reported as M ± SE. During exercise, fat oxidation (0.19 ± 0.03 vs. 0.15 ± 0.01 g/min, p < .01) and percentage of energy from fat (32% ± 3% vs. 28% ± 3%, p < .01) were higher with metformin than with placebo. Postexercise, metformin slightly lowered fat oxidation (0.12 ± 0.02 to 0.10 ± 0.02 g/min, p < .01) compared with placebo. There was an inverse relationship between postexercise fat oxidation and the rate of fat oxidation during exercise (r = –.68, p < .05). In healthy individuals, metformin has opposing actions on fat oxidation during and after exercise. Whether the same effects are evident in insulin-resistant individuals remains to be determined.