A national job analysis was conducted to determine the preparation perceptions, job demographics, and decision-making roles of adapted physical educators (APEs). Participants were 293 teachers, representing a 51% return rate. Most had master’s degrees in physical education, an average of 10 years teaching experience in APE, and APE job titles. Teachers emphasized a greater need for training in teaching, motor development, and continuing education. Most respondents worked in urban settings (56%), served an average of 4.4 schools, and reported an average caseload of 104 students. Teachers worked an average of 36.1 hr per week. Of this time, 52% was spent providing direct APE services and 26% providing indirect APE instruction. Teachers worked with all age groups and all degrees of disabilities. Findings were discussed in relation to the 219 APEs taking the first national APE certification examination in 1997, professional preparation concerns, and service delivery issues.
Luke E. Kelly and Bruce Gansneder
Phillip Conatser, Martin Block, and Bruce Gansneder
The purpose was to (a) examine aquatic instructors’ beliefs (female, n = 82; male, n = 29) about teaching swimming to individuals with disabilities in inclusive settings and (b) test the theory of planned behavior model (Ajzen, 1985, 1988, 2001). Aquatic instructors from 25 states representing 122 cities across the U.S. participated in this study. The instrument, named Aquatic Instructors’ Beliefs Toward Inclusion (AIBTI), was an extended version of the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities— Swim (Conatser, Block, & Lepore, 2000). A correlated t test showed aquatic instructors’ beliefs (attitudes toward the behavior, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, intention, behavior) were significantly more favorable toward teaching aquatics to individuals with mild disabilities than individuals with severe disabilities. Stepwise multiple regression showed perceived behavioral control and attitude significantly predicted intention, and intention predicted instructors’ inclusive behavior for both disability groups. Further, results indicated the theory of planned behavior predicts aquatic instructors’ behavior better than the theory of reasoned action.
Barbara Teetor Waite, Bruce Gansneder, and Robert J. Robert
This study represents a first step in the development and validation of a measure of sport-specific self-acceptance. Phase 1 of this study involved instrument design and pilot testing. In Phase 2 a random sample of Division I collegiate athletes (N=131) were asked to complete the Self-Acceptance Scale for Athletes (SASA) as well as measures of general self-acceptance self-esteem, stability of self-concept, and sport-specific self-description (i.e., perceived competence/adequacy). Test-retest coefficients ranged from 62 to .75 and alpha coefficients ranged from .58 to .80. Factor analysis suggests two factors, independence of self-regard and self-accepting self-regard representing the two dimensions of self-acceptance measured in the SASA. Scores on the SASA have moderate correlations with general self-acceptance, self-esteem, and stability of self-concept. A significantly stronger relationship between self-esteem and perceived competence/adequacy than between self-acceptance and perceived competence/adequacy suggests that the SASA is able to discriminate between these closely related constructs
Robert J. Rotella, Bruce Gansneder, David Ojala, and John Billing
David Cook, Bruce Gansneder, Robert Rotella, Christopher Malone, Linda Bunker, and DeDe Owens
Michele A. Parker and Bruce M. Gansneder
Column-editor : Michael G. Dolan
Joshua M. Drouin, Peggy A. Houglum, David H. Perrin, and Bruce M. Gansneder
To determine the relationship between weight-bearing (WB) and non-weight-bearing (NWB) joint reposition sense (JRS) and a functional hop test (FH) and to compare performance on these parameters between athletes and nonathletes.
Repeated-measures ANOVA and Pearson correlations.
40 men (age = 20.8 ± 1.7 y; ht = 176.9 ± 5.8 cm; wt = 82.6 ± 9.5 kg): 20 lacrosse players and 20 nonathletes.
Main Outcome Measures:
Ability to actively reproduce 30° of knee flexion in the WB and NWB conditions and functional performance on a single-leg crossover-hop test.
No significant correlations were observed between JRS and FH in athletes and nonathletes. No significant differences were observed between athletes and nonathletes in JRS. All participants were significantly more accurate at WB than at NWB JRS.
There appears to be no relationship between WB or NWB JRS and functional performance, regardless of one’s physical activity level
Joseph E. Szczerba, Julie N. Bernier, David H. Perrin, and Bruce M. Gansneder
The purpose of this study was to estimate intertester reliability of active and passive ankle joint position sense measurements in uninjured subjects. Subjects were 10 males and 10 females. Active and passive ankle joint position sense was assessed by two testers. Each subject was positioned supine on a modified examination table with his or her ankle placed in 25° of plantar flexion. Joint position sense (IPS) measurements, on two separate occasions, were recorded in degrees of error from four predetermined test positions. Test order was counterbalanced according to mode (active/passive) and test position. Two trials were performed for each sequence and the average of the two was recorded for analysis. The results revealed that both the active and passive JPS protocols yielded poor to moderate intertester reliability. It was concluded that further research is needed to develop reliable protocols for testing joint position sense of the ankle joint.
Damien M. Hess, Christopher J. Joyce, Brent L. Arnold, and Bruce M. Gansneder
Agility training has been proposed as an important tool in rehabilitation. However, it is unclear which types of agility training are most useful.
To assess the effects of agility training on balance in individuals with functionally unstable ankles.
A 2-group experimental design with repeated measures.
Twenty college-aged volunteers, each with 1 functionally unstable ankle, were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups.
Subjects in the experimental group performed agility training 3 times per week for 4 weeks.
Main Outcome Measures:
Subjects were tested for static single-leg balance before and after the training period. Anterior/posterior sway amplitude, medial/lateral sway amplitude, and sway index were assessed using the Chattex Balance System.
No significant differences in balance were found after the agility training.
Agility training did not improve static single-leg balance in subjects with functionally unstable ankles.
Carl G. Mattacola, David H. Perrin, Bruce M. Gansneder, Jennifer D. Allen, and Cheryl A. Mickey
This study evaluated a visual analog scale (VAS) and a graphic rating scale (GRS) for the measurement of pain following delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and following treatment for the symptoms of DOMS. Data from two studies were used to evaluate the scales. Pain intensity was assessed prior to and following induction of DOMS and immediately before and after each treatment session. In Study 1, subjects were randomly assigned to receive a 20-min ice pack followed by a 7-min sham ultrasound treatment or a 20-min ice pack followed by a 7-min nonthermal ultrasound treatment. In Study 2, subjects received a 20-rain microcurrent neuromuscular stimulation (MENS) treatment or a 20-min sham MENS treatment. In both studies, significant differences were found between the VAS and GRS scales for pretest conditions on Days 1 and 2 for all subjects. There were no significant differences between any other days or tests. The differences on Day 1 and Day 2 were attributed to the novelty of filling out the scales. Therefore, a. visual analog or graphic rating scale can be used to evaluate pain intensity following DOMS when repeated measurement is involved, although consideration should be given to potential differences the first one or two times the scales are completed.