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Bryan A. McCullick

This study examined practicing teachers’ perspectives on the requisite characteristics needed for participants in PETE. Eighteen physical educators were interviewed. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed, and the data were analyzed using analytic induction, which allowed the researcher to draw themes and commonalities from participant answers. Interpretivism and teacher socialization theories were used to analyze and understand the data. Dominant themes emerging from this study were that undergraduates should have a love for physical activity, should like children and people, be physically fit, and be flexible. The teachers also believed that a teacher educator’s effectiveness in preparing future physical educators depended on being credible, displaying a love for physical activity, and having concern for undergraduates and their development as teachers. Finally, themes emerging specific to characteristics of cooperating teachers included commitment to the profession, displaying effectiveness as teachers, and embodying personal characteristics such as honesty and adaptability. This study is significant in that it provides evidence of a shared technical culture in physical education, gives teacher educators valuable input as to the type of student who would likely be a good physical education teacher, and gives voice to those who teach physical education in an area in which they should be intimately familiar—the preparation of a teacher for public school.

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Bryan McCullick and Mark Byra

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Karen Lux and Bryan A. McCullick

The purpose of this study was to analyze how one exceptional elementary physical education teacher navigated her working environment as the teacher of a marginal subject. Structuration Theory (Giddens, 1984) was used to make meaning of how the teacher functioned within her school community allowing her to remain motivated and effective. Data collection involved approximately 300 hr in the school setting involving observation and field notes, interviews, and critical incident (Flanagan, 1954) reports. Data trustworthiness was established through triangulation, member checks and a peer debriefer. Inductive analysis (Huberman & Miles, 1994) of the data generated themes pertaining to Structuration Theory. Analysis revealed that the teacher navigated marginality using four strategies. Implications for teacher preparation are discussed.

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Nilo C. Ramos and Bryan A. McCullick

The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary students’ perceptions of PE teacher credibility. Eight high- and low-skilled students from grades 3 and 5 were selected from a school employing a PE teacher holding a National Board Certification. Data were collected in the school setting utilizing observations, field notes, an open-ended questionnaire, student drawings, a photo elicitation activity, and group and individual interviews. Data were analyzed inductively and deductively using Miles and Huberman’s (1994) four-stage analysis in relation to source credibility theory (Hovland, Janis, & Kelley, 1953). Data trustworthiness was ensured through a peer debriefer, reflexivity journal/audit trail and triangulation. In the eyes of the students, a credible PE teacher “Looks Like One,” “Practices What She Preaches,” and “Is an ‘Awesome’ Pedagogue.” Implications for both current PE teachers and PETE programs concerned with teacher effectiveness and, consequently, student learning are discussed.

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Bryan McCullick, Mike Metzler, Seref Cicek, Josephine Jackson and Brad Vickers

An ever-increasing focus on accountability in teacher education has augmented the importance of physical education teacher education (PETE) programs to develop procedures for assessing their candidates and completers—the student teachers (STs). Finding out what students think, know, and feel about STs’ teaching ability is yet another valuable source of data that can assist in the assessment process. The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine students’ perspectives of STs’ effectiveness as a window into the effectiveness of a PETE program, and (b) to identify students’ ability to provide valuable feedback to PETE programs on how well STs meet the NASPE National Standards for Beginning Physical Education Teachers (NSBPET). Using the NASPE/NCATE standards as a framework, a set of interview questions was developed to elicit students’ perspectives of the STs’ performance. Findings were inductively analyzed and indicated that STs were able to meet some of the NASPE/NCATE standards and that students can be valuable data sources regarding STs’ competence in Content Knowledge, Diverse Learners, Communication, Management and Motivation, Planning and Instruction, Student Assessment, and Reflection. Students were less able to provide insight into STs’ performance in Growth and Development, Technology, and Collaboration. Overall, these findings suggest that students can be counted on as a source of evidence to complement a thorough and fruitful program assessment.

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Paul G. Schempp, Bryan A. McCullick, Matthew A. Grant, Cornell Foo and Kelly Wieser

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between coaches’ professional playing experience and their professional coaching success. The sample (n = 134) included coaches who had the equivalent of three full seasons of head coaching experience in either Major League Baseball (MLB) (n = 46), the National Basketball Association (NBA) (n = 38) or the National Football League (NFL) (n = 50) as determined by the total number of games coached between the years 1997-2007. ANOVAs revealed no significant differences between coaches with more or less professional playing experience and professional coaching success as determined by professional winning percentage. Further, no significant relationship was found between professional playing experience and professional coaching success in MLB (r = -0.16), NBA (r = -0.05) or NFL (r = 0.00). It was concluded that professional playing experience was not a predictor of professional level coaching success. These findings support the notion that sources of knowledge other than playing experience may be necessary and useful in developing coaching expertise.

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Bryan McCullick, Paul Schempp, Shan-Hui Hsu, Jin Hong Jung, Brad Vickers and Greg Schuknecht

A distinguishing characteristic of expert teachers appears to be an excellent memory (Berliner, 1986; Tan, 1997). Possessing an excellent memory aids experts in building a substantial knowledge base relative to teaching and learning. Despite its importance, the memory skills of expert teachers have yet to be investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the working memories of expert sport instructors. Forty-three expert teachers served as subjects for this study. Each teacher was shown a series of slides depicting play and instructional situations in their respective domains. The test required that the subjects view a slide for 5 seconds and then recall as much as they could from the slide. The audio taped responses were transcribed and then analyzed inductively using Huberman and Miles’ (1995) four stage analysis framework to draw themes and commonalities from the data. The findings revealed three themes of experts’ working memories: (a) voluminous and rich, (b) a dominant order, and (c) include a thorough skill analysis. There is support for Berliner (1986) and Tan’s (1997) contention that experts have excellent memories, arrange their knowledge in a hierarchical manner, and are able to discern the important from the unimportant.

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Bryan A. McCullick, Thomas Baker, Phillip D. Tomporowski, Thomas J. Templin, Karen Lux and Tiffany Isaac

The purpose of this study was to analyze state school-based physical education (SBPE) policies’ text and the resulting legal implications. A textualist approach to the legal method of Statutory Interpretation framed the data analysis. Findings revealed the difficulty of determining with clarity a majority of PE statutes and it is probable that based on current wording, courts could not play a role in interpreting these statutes, thus leaving interpretation to educational authorities. Significant variability of how authorities interpret statutes increases the challenge of consistent interpretation or adherence to the NASPE Guidelines for Quality Physical Education and whether meaningful policy study can be conducted to determine if SBPE makes an impact.