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Carl T: Hayashi

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Carl T. Hayashi

To augment the minimal sport psychology research examining alternative cultures, the purpose of this study was to examine the nature of individual differences and social contextual factors related to achievement motivation among Anglo-American and Hawaiian male physical activity participants. Semistructured interviews were conducted with Hawaiians (n = 5) and Anglo-Americans who resided in the mainland United States (n = 5) and in Hawaii (n = 5). Results of content analyses revealed that all respondents defined positive and negative experiences in physical activity through task and ego goal orientations and an interdependent perspective of the self. Participants perceived the weight room environment through competitive, individualistic, and cooperative goal/reward structures. Cultural differences were also detected as Hawaiians defined positive activity experiences based on the demonstration of pride and perceived the weight room as a setting in which to express pride and an interdependent perspective. These findings suggest the need for more cross-cultural research in sport psychology to validate theoretical constructs.

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Carl T. Hayashi

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Maureen R. Weiss and Carl T. Hayashi

The purpose of this study was to examine parent-child influences associated with highly competitive gymnastics participation. Athletes (n = 24) responded to self-report measures of perceived parental influences, and the athletes’ parents (n = 39) responded to interview questions regarding the influence of their child’s gymnastics involvement on their own behaviors. Descriptive analyses of gymnasts’ responses revealed that parents (a) frequently attended meets, (b) encouraged their child’s participation extensively, (c) demonstrated positive affect toward their child’s involvement, and (d) held positive beliefs and realistic expectations about their child’s competence. Parents’ responses indicated large time and financial investments as a result of their child’s involvement and indicated that their child’s participation positively influenced such behaviors as (a) attendance at gymnastics meets, (b) reading sports-related literature, (c) watching sports on television, (d) participating in fitness-related activities, and (e) parenting in general. These findings support theory and research that advocate the reciprocal nature of parent-child socialization effects in sport.