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Robin S. Vealey, Robin Cooley, Emma Nilsson, Carly Block, and Nick Galli

The purpose of this study was to examine the types and perceived usefulness of questionnaires used by consultants in applied intervention work with athletes in 2003 and 2017, as well as to understand consultants’ perceptions of the advantages, limitations, and needs regarding the use of questionnaires in consulting. Sport psychology consultants in 2003 (n = 96) and 2017 (n = 106) completed a questionnaire that included Likert-scale questions as well as open-ended questions. The percentage of consultants who used questionnaires decreased from 83% in 2003 to 67% in 2017. Consultants in 2003 rated questionnaires as more useful than consultants in 2017, although the specific questionnaires used by consultants did not change extensively over the 14-year period. Advantages in using questionnaires included efficiency, structure of assessment, consensual validation, and credibility, while limitations included lack of relevance, undermining of athlete-consultant relationship, interpretive problems, and cost and lack of access.

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Robert Weinberg, Deanna Morrison, Megan Loftin, Thelma Horn, Elizabeth Goodwin, Emily Wright, and Carly Block

The purpose of the current investigation was to determine the effectiveness of writing down goals, as well as displaying them, on performance. Sixty-two college student participants were randomly assigned to one of the following conditions: no goals, unwritten goals, written goals, or written and displayed goals. Participants performed a free-throw-shooting task, dribbling around cones, and layups for 2 min (Mikan drill) in a pretest–posttest design with posttesting occurring 3–4 wk after the initial testing. A 4 × 2 (goal conditions by trials) repeated-measures MANOVA with the 3 performance measures as dependent variables was conducted. There were no significant group main effects or interactions. Results also revealed no differences among the groups in commitment, motivation, and perceived difficulty of their goals. However, significant correlations indicated that the more participants looked at their goal, the more likely they were to practice their skills (although this did not lead to enhanced performance). These results call into question the efficacy of writing down goals, although future studies need to verify this with different tasks and different levels of goal difficulty.