The purpose of this study was to test the validity and reliability of a brief, wearable, sensor-based screening tool for risk of insufficient daily physical activity (PA) in toddlers. Families (N = 119) with 24- to 35-month-old children attending an Early Head Start (EHS) in a major metropolitan area were recruited. Children wore accelerometers for 7 days, including the usual ∼3.5 hours/week during which children attended the EHS. After applying wear time criteria, accelerometer data from 50 children were included in further analyses. For each child, 15-minute samples of raw triaxial accelerometer data were randomly extracted from the period of time during which children were in the EHS. Using a custom scoring tool, PHIT (Physical Inactivity Test), accelerometer signals were scored for the presence of total PA (TPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). TPA and MVPA PHIT scores derived from 15-minute samples were respectively used to classify children meeting TPA and MVPA recommendations as determined during the 7-day period. Cross-validated misclassification errors were used to evaluate PHIT score performance. The Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula was used to determine the number of 15-minute samples needed to achieve sufficient reliability (r ≥ 0.70). Using one 15-minute sample, misclassification errors for TPA and MVPA PHIT scores were 19% and 13%, respectively. Spearman-Brown analyses showed that three samples yielded TPA and MVPA PHIT score reliabilities of r = 0.79 and r = 0.75, respectively. Using three samples, PHIT score misclassification errors for identifying insufficient TPA and MVPA in toddlers were 28% and 20%, respectively. PHIT was a valid and reliable tool for PA surveillance in toddlers.
Aston K. McCullough and Carol Ewing Garber
Barry Braun, Nancy I. Williams, Carol Ewing Garber and Matthew Hickey
As the discipline of kinesiology ponders what should compose a kinesiology curriculum, it is worth considering the broad context. What is our responsibility to imbue students with values, viewpoint, and a vocabulary that facilitates their success in a context greater than our discipline? How do we decide what those things are (e.g., professional integrity, analytical thinking, cultural understanding, social responsibility, problem solving, leadership and engaged citizenship, effective communication, working collaboratively, preparation for lifelong learning)? How do we create a curriculum that provides sufficient understanding of disciplinary knowledge and critically important foundational skills? The purpose of this paper is to provide a jumping-off point for deeper discussion of what our students need most and how we can deliver it.
Shirit Kamil-Rosenberg, Mary L. Greaney, Tsivia Hochman and Carol Ewing Garber
Physical activity (PA) and health were compared in younger (YA; 18–44 years), middle-aged (MA; 45–64 years), and older (OA; ≥65 years) adults with disability (PWD), functional limitation (PFL), or without disability (PWoD). Disability occurred in YA (PWD: 2.3%; PFL: 14.3%), MA (PWD: 8.5%; PFL: 23.8%), and OA (PWD: 14.9%; PFL: 26.6%). Not meeting aerobic/muscle-strengthening PA recommendations was frequent in YA (PWD: 50.7%; PFL: 42.5%; PWoD: 35.8%), MA (PWD: 56.7%; PFL: 44.0%; PWoD: 35.6%), and OA (PWD: 57.8%; PFL: 44.1%; PWoD: 33.1%). Among PWD, YA and MA met muscle, strengthening recommendations more frequently than did OA; PFL did more aerobic PA than PWD. The presence of chronic diseases, female gender, White race, lower education, and less income were associated with being PWD or PFL. Those with greater PA were less likely to be PWD or PFL. Results suggest increasing public health efforts to promote healthy lifestyles in MA and OA.