The purpose of this study was to test the validity and reliability of a brief, wearable, sensor-based screening tool for risk of insufficient daily physical activity (PA) in toddlers. Families (N = 119) with 24- to 35-month-old children attending an Early Head Start (EHS) in a major metropolitan area were recruited. Children wore accelerometers for 7 days, including the usual ∼3.5 hours/week during which children attended the EHS. After applying wear time criteria, accelerometer data from 50 children were included in further analyses. For each child, 15-minute samples of raw triaxial accelerometer data were randomly extracted from the period of time during which children were in the EHS. Using a custom scoring tool, PHIT (Physical Inactivity Test), accelerometer signals were scored for the presence of total PA (TPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). TPA and MVPA PHIT scores derived from 15-minute samples were respectively used to classify children meeting TPA and MVPA recommendations as determined during the 7-day period. Cross-validated misclassification errors were used to evaluate PHIT score performance. The Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula was used to determine the number of 15-minute samples needed to achieve sufficient reliability (r ≥ 0.70). Using one 15-minute sample, misclassification errors for TPA and MVPA PHIT scores were 19% and 13%, respectively. Spearman-Brown analyses showed that three samples yielded TPA and MVPA PHIT score reliabilities of r = 0.79 and r = 0.75, respectively. Using three samples, PHIT score misclassification errors for identifying insufficient TPA and MVPA in toddlers were 28% and 20%, respectively. PHIT was a valid and reliable tool for PA surveillance in toddlers.
Aston K. McCullough and Carol Ewing Garber
Ciarán P. Friel and Carol Ewing Garber
Wearable physical activity (PA) monitors are widely promoted as a means to motivate people to be more active, but the motivational profile of users has never been assessed. This study’s purpose was to classify adult users by their motivational regulation scores and examine how these profiles were associated with moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). Current users (N = 320) recruited across the United States completed a Web-based survey. Motivational regulations were measured using the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire, and associations with MVPA were explored using bivariate correlations. MVPA was more highly correlated with autonomous rather than controlling regulations. A cluster analysis was conducted using the respondents’ motivational regulation scores. Five motivational profiles emerged from this analysis, and they differed significantly across motivation and MVPA scores. PA monitor users characterized by more autonomous motives presented with higher MVPA. As technology use increases, assessing the multidimensionality of PA monitor users’ motivation may add value when researching PA behaviors.
Shirit Kamil-Rosenberg, Mary L. Greaney, Tsivia Hochman, and Carol Ewing Garber
Physical activity (PA) and health were compared in younger (YA; 18–44 years), middle-aged (MA; 45–64 years), and older (OA; ≥65 years) adults with disability (PWD), functional limitation (PFL), or without disability (PWoD). Disability occurred in YA (PWD: 2.3%; PFL: 14.3%), MA (PWD: 8.5%; PFL: 23.8%), and OA (PWD: 14.9%; PFL: 26.6%). Not meeting aerobic/muscle-strengthening PA recommendations was frequent in YA (PWD: 50.7%; PFL: 42.5%; PWoD: 35.8%), MA (PWD: 56.7%; PFL: 44.0%; PWoD: 35.6%), and OA (PWD: 57.8%; PFL: 44.1%; PWoD: 33.1%). Among PWD, YA and MA met muscle, strengthening recommendations more frequently than did OA; PFL did more aerobic PA than PWD. The presence of chronic diseases, female gender, White race, lower education, and less income were associated with being PWD or PFL. Those with greater PA were less likely to be PWD or PFL. Results suggest increasing public health efforts to promote healthy lifestyles in MA and OA.
Barry Braun, Nancy I. Williams, Carol Ewing Garber, and Matthew Hickey
As the discipline of kinesiology ponders what should compose a kinesiology curriculum, it is worth considering the broad context. What is our responsibility to imbue students with values, viewpoint, and a vocabulary that facilitates their success in a context greater than our discipline? How do we decide what those things are (e.g., professional integrity, analytical thinking, cultural understanding, social responsibility, problem solving, leadership and engaged citizenship, effective communication, working collaboratively, preparation for lifelong learning)? How do we create a curriculum that provides sufficient understanding of disciplinary knowledge and critically important foundational skills? The purpose of this paper is to provide a jumping-off point for deeper discussion of what our students need most and how we can deliver it.
Pamela D. Swan, Carol Ewing Garber, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Monica J. Hubal, Lynda Ransdell, Melinda Millard-Stafford, and Lynn B. Panton
Prior to 1950, the field of exercise science was in its infancy. Exercise physiologists focused their research on understanding basic mechanisms of how the body responds to exercise and how to increase fitness. Most researchers and almost all research participants were male. Over the next two decades, and coinciding with the passage of Title IX, a few remarkable female exercise scientists emerged whose research and leadership had a profound effect on the field and directly influenced girls’ and women’s sports participation. This commentary presents an overview of the contributions and impact of several of these groundbreaking female exercise physiologists, Josephine Rathbone, Barbara Drinkwater, Priscilla Clarkson, Christine Wells, and Emily Haymes. We highlight their influence on the development of the field of exercise science and recognize their continued importance to women’s sport at the 50th Anniversary of Title IX.