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Tzu Chuan Yen, Nima Toosizadeh, Carol Howe, Michael Dohm, Jane Mohler and Bijan Najafi

Balance assessments could render useful objective performance measures to evaluate the efficacy of low back surgeries, yet these assessments have not been collectively examined to determine longitudinal sensitivity across surgical interventions. The purpose of this review was to determine sensitivity of balance measurements for disparate spinal disorders after surgical intervention. We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and CINAHL. Articles were selected based on: (1) sample consisted of low back disorder individuals and (2) balance measurements were obtained both pre- and postsurgery. Most of the articles addressed 2 specific low back disorders: (1) adolescent idiopathic scoliosis/spinal fusion and (2) disc herniation/decompression surgery. For scoliosis patients, body sway increased (14–97%) immediately following surgery but gradually reduced (1–33%) approaching the 1-year post spinal fusion assessment. For patients with disc herniation, sway range, sway velocity, sway area, and sway variability all decreased (19–42%) immediately postsurgery. Balance assessments for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis who underwent surgical intervention should be performed with visual occlusion, focus on time domain parameters, and evaluated with longer follow-up times. Patients with disc herniation who underwent decompression surgery should have balance assessments with visual deprivation, test conditions specifically addressing hip strategy, and correlation with pain.

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Jennifer W. Bea, Robert M. Blew, Carol Howe, Megan Hetherington-Rauth and Scott B. Going


This systematic review evaluates the relationship between resistance training and metabolic function in youth.


PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials. gov were searched for articles that (1): studied children (2); included resistance training (3); were randomized interventions; and (4) reported markers of metabolic function. The selected studies were analyzed using the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias Tool.


Thirteen articles met inclusion criteria. Mean age ranged from 12.2 to 16.9 years, but most were limited to high school (n = 11) and overweight/obese (n = 12). Sample sizes (n = 22–304), session duration (40–60min), and intervention length (8–52 wks) varied. Exercise frequency was typically 2–3 d/wk. Resistance training was metabolically beneficial compared with control or resistance plus aerobic training in 5 studies overall and 3 out of the 4 studies with the fewest threats to bias (p ≤ .05); each was accompanied by beneficial changes in body composition, but only one study adjusted for change in body composition.


Limited evidence suggests that resistance training may positively affect metabolic parameters in youth. Well-controlled resistance training interventions of varying doses are needed to definitively determine whether resistance training can mitigate metabolic dysfunction in youth and whether training benefits on metabolic parameters are independent of body composition changes.