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  • Author: Caroline A. Macera x
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Caroline A. Macera and Wilma Wooten

This review summarizes information on the rate of injury among adolescents who participate in specific sports or recreational activities. Injury-related mortality is high among adolescents, accounting for over 75% of the deaths occurring among those between 15 and 19 years of age, with about 5% of these deaths attributed to sports injuries. Several difficulties were encountered in conducting this review. There was no standard definition for injury, resulting in widely diverse operational definitions. The underlying denominator and time period used to obtain rates also varied widely. In spite of these difficulties, several sports were identified as particularly dangerous due to the nature of the injury: football for males and gymnastics for females. Consistent injury definitions and larger prospective studies are needed to confirm these rates and to identify risk factors.

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James R. Whitehead, Caroline A. Macera and Wilma Wooten

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Sandra A. Ham, Caroline A. Macera, Deborah A. Jones, Barbara E. Ainsworth and Kathleen M. Turczyn

Purpose:

To explore among demographic groups the differences in prevalence estimates of physical activity that may occur as a result of differences in survey design characteristics, including question wording, placement, and examples of activities.

Methods:

We compared responses to similar physical activity instruments administered to large samples of adults in 1999 (n = 9,775), 2000 (n = 32,374), and 1999–2000 (n = 7,529). The questions assessed participation in non-occupational physical activity at vigorous and moderate intensities. Surveys used in-person or telephone interviews.

Results:

The prevalence of recommended levels of physical activity (i.e., ≥3 days and ≥20 min vigorous activities or ≥5 days and ≥30 min moderate activities) varied 10% across 3 surveys. Although survey design characteristics varied, higher prevalence was associated with the use of examples to measure multiple domains of activity and question order.

Conclusions:

Measuring multiple domains is important for assessing health-related physical activity. These results suggest that physical activity measurement varies with question and survey design characteristics.

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Jared P. Reis, Caroline A. Macera, Barbara E. Ainsworth and Deborah A. Hipp

Background:

Walking for exercise is a popular leisure-time activity pursuit among US adults; however, little information is available about total daily walking.

Methods:

A nationally representative random sample of 10,461 US adults (4438 men and 6023 women) was surveyed via telephone between 2002 and 2003. Weekly frequency and daily duration of walking for all purposes in bouts of at least 10 min were measured. Regular walking was defined as walking ≥5 d/wk, ≥30 min/d.

Results:

Overall, 49% of adults (51% of men and 47% of women) were regular walkers, and approximately 17% reported no walking. Regular walking was significantly higher in employed adults and decreased with increasing age in women and body mass index in both sexes. Total walking was significantly higher among adults with lower levels of educational attainment and did not vary significantly by race/ethnicity.

Conclusions:

These results affirm the popularity of walking in the United States.

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Michelle M. Yore, Heather R. Bowles, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Caroline A. Macera and Harold W. Kohl III

Background:

In 2002, the National Physical Activity and Weight Loss Survey asked two sets of questions on occupational physical activity—one question from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and eight detailed questions from the occupational physical activity questionnaire (OPAQ). This study compares the responses.

Methods:

On the basis of percentage of occupational physical activity reported on OPAQ, 5847 respondents were classified by three levels (sitting or standing, walking, and heavy labor). Kappa, MET-min per day, and median hours worked at the three levels were calculated to compare the two sets of questions.

Results:

Levels of occupational physical activity reported on the BRFSS question agreed with OPAQ (kappa = 0.56). Hours of heavy labor per day reported on OPAQ increased among the three activity levels on BRFSS.

Conclusions:

The BRFSS question and OPAQ classify respondents similarly by occupational physical activity. The BRFSS question is useful for overview and OPAQ, for more detailed analyses.

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Judy Kruger, Michelle M. Yore, Barbara E. Ainsworth and Caroline A. Macera

Background:

Physical activity (PA) plays a major role in maintaining energy balance. We examined the patterns of occupational activity, strength training, and lifestyle PA (low, medium, high) by sex and race among persons trying to control their weight (lose weight, stay about the same, not trying to lose/not trying to stay about the same).

Methods:

Population data (N = 9258) from a nationwide telephone survey were collected to examine PA patterns. Domains of PA were analyzed by sex and race.

Results:

Of those trying to control their weight, approximately 24.0% engaged in strengthening activities 2 to 3 d/wk. Among those trying to lose weight, 48.2% versus 42.2% of men (White and non-White, respectively) and 40.4% versus 35.1% of women (White and non-White, respectively) reported high volumes of PA.

Conclusions:

PA patterns among persons trying to control their weight vary by sex and race. Adults trying to control their weight are encouraged to increase levels of PA.

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Michelle M. Yore, Sandra A. Ham, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Caroline A. Macera, Deborah A. Jones and Harold W. Kohl III

Background:

In 2001, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) included a new occupational physical activity (PA) question. This article evaluates the reliability of this survey question.

Methods:

Forty-six subjects were followed for 3 wk, answered 3 PA surveys by telephone, and completed daily PA logs for 1 wk. Kappa statistics determined the reliability of occupational activities (sitting/standing, walking, and heavy lifting). A descriptive analysis compared the time in specific occupational activities.

Results:

Eighty percent of the respondents reported “mostly sitting or standing” at work; and test–retest reliability was moderate (k = 0.40 to 0.45). The occupationally inactive sat/stood for 85% (mean hours = 5.6) of the workday, whereas the occupationally active sat/stood for 53% (mean hours = 3.9) of the workday.

Conclusions:

The BRFSS occupational activity question has moderate reliability, distinguishes between occupationally active and inactive persons, and can be used in surveillance systems to estimate adult occupational PA.