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David Montero and Carsten Lundby


Few recent studies indicate that short-term repeated-sprint (RS) training in hypoxia (RSH) improves RS performance compared with identical training under normoxic conditions (RSN) in endurance-trained subjects.


To determine the effects of RSH against RSN on RS performance under normoxic and moderate hypoxic conditions, using a randomized, doubleblind, crossover experimental design.


Fifteen endurance-trained male subjects (age 25 ± 4 y) performed 4 wk of RS training (3 sessions/wk) in normobaric hypoxia (RSH, FiO2 = 13.8%) and normoxia (RSN, FiO2 = 20.9%) in a crossover manner. Before and after completion of training, RS tests were performed on a cycle ergometer with no prior exercise (RSNE), after an incremental exercise test (RSIE), and after a time-trial test (RSTT) in normoxia and hypoxia.


Peak power outputs at the incremental exercise test and time-trial performance were unaltered by RSH in normoxia and hypoxia. RS performance was generally enhanced by RSH, as well as RSN, but there were no additional effects of RSH over RSN on peak and mean sprint power output and the number of repeated sprints performed in the RSNE, RSIE, and RSTT trials under normoxic and hypoxic conditions.


The present double-blind crossover study indicates that RSH does not improve RS performance compared with RSN in normoxic and hypoxic conditions in endurance-trained subjects. Therefore, caution should be exercised when proposing RSH as an advantageous method to improve exercise performance.

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Bent R. Rønnestad, Joar Hansen, Thomas C. Bonne, and Carsten Lundby

Purpose: The present case report aimed to investigate the effects of exercise training in temperate ambient conditions while wearing a heat suit on hemoglobin mass (Hbmass). Methods: As part of their training regimens, 5 national-team members of endurance sports (3 males) performed ∼5 weekly heat suit exercise training sessions each lasting 50 minutes for a duration of ∼8 weeks. Two other male athletes acted as controls. After the initial 8-week period, 3 of the athletes continued for 2 to 4 months with ∼3 weekly heat sessions in an attempt to maintain acquired adaptations at a lower cost. Hbmass was assessed in duplicate before and after intervention and maintenance period based on automated carbon monoxide rebreathing. Results: Heat suit exercise training increased rectal temperature to a median value of 38.7°C (range 38.6°C–39.0°C), and during the initial ∼8 weeks of heat suit training, there was a median increase of 5% (range 1.4%–12.9%) in Hbmass, while the changes in the 2 control athletes were a decrease of 1.7% and an increase of 3.2%, respectively. Furthermore, during the maintenance period, the 3 athletes who continued with a reduced number of heat suit sessions experienced a change of 0.7%, 2.8%, and −1.1%, indicating that it is possible to maintain initial increases in Hbmass despite reducing the weekly number of heat suit sessions. Conclusions: The present case report illustrates that heat suit exercise training acutely raises rectal temperature and that following 8 weeks of such training Hbmass may increase in elite endurance athletes.