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John K. Malone, Catherine Blake and Brian Caulfield


To investigate the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) during acute recovery between 2 bouts of maximal aerobic exercise.


On 3 separate days, 19 trained male cyclists (28 ± 7 y, 76.4 ± 10.4 kg, power output at maximal aerobic power [pVo2max] 417 ± 44 W) performed a 3-min maximal cycling bout at 105% PVo2max before a 30-min randomly assigned recovery intervention of passive (PAS: resting), active (ACT: 30% PVo2max), or NMES (5 Hz, 4 pulses at 500 μs). Immediately afterward, a cycle bout at 95% PVo2max to exhaustion (TLIM) was performed. Heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (BLa) were recorded at designated time points. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA with a Tukey honestly significantly different post hoc test. Statistical significance threshold was P < .05.


The TLIM was significantly shorter for NMES than for ACT (199.6 ± 69.4 s vs 250.7 ± 105.5 s: P = .016) but not PAS recovery (199.6 ± 69.4 s vs 216.4 ± 77.5 s: P = .157). The TLIM was not significantly different between ACT and PAS (250.7 ± 105.5 s vs 216.4 ± 77.5 s: P = .088). The decline in BLa was significantly greater during ACT than NMES and PAS recovery (P < .001), with no difference between NMES and PAS. In addition, HR was significantly higher during ACT than NMES and PAS recovery (P < .001), with no difference between NMES and PAS.


NMES was less effective than ACT and comparable to PAS recovery when used between 2 bouts of maximal aerobic exercise in trained male cyclists.

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Edel Langan, John Toner, Catherine Blake and Chris Lonsdale

We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the effects of a self-determination theory-based intervention on athlete motivation and burnout. In addition, we examined the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. We randomly assigned youth Gaelic football coaches (N = 6) and their teams to an experimental or a delayed treatment control group (n = 3 each group). We employed linear mixed modeling to analyze changes in player motivation and burnout as a result of their coach participating in a 12-week SDT-based intervention. In addition, we conducted a fidelity assessment to examine whether the intervention was implemented as planned. The findings demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a self-determination theory-based intervention in the coaching domain. In addition, this study demonstrated favorable trends in the quality of player motivation and burnout symptoms as a result of an SDT-based intervention.

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Erin Smith, Tara Cusack, Caitriona Cunningham and Catherine Blake

This review examines the effect of a dual task on the gait parameters of older adults with a mean gait speed of 1.0 m/s or greater, and the effect of type and complexity of task. A systematic review of Web of Science, PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, and PsycINFO was performed in July 2016. Twenty-three studies (28 data sets) were reviewed and pooled for meta-analysis. The effect size on seven gait parameters was measured as the raw mean difference between single- and dual-task performance. Gait speed significantly reduced with the addition of a dual task, with increasing complexity showing greater decrements. Cadence, stride time, and measures of gait variability were all negatively affected under the dual-task condition. In older adults, the addition of a dual task significantly reduces gait speed and cadence, with possible implications for the assessment of older people, as the addition of a dual task may expose deficits not observed under single-task assessment.