This study examined (1) the relationships between self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation and impression construction) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among breast cancer survivors, and (2) whether social cognitive constructs (i.e., self-presentational efficacy expectancy [SPEE]; self-presentational outcome expectancy [SPOE]; self-presentational outcome value [SPOV]) moderate these relationships. Breast cancer survivors (N = 169; M age = 55.06, SD = 10.67 years) completed self-report measures. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age and body mass index, indicated that impression motivation was a significant correlate of MVPA (β = .25). Furthermore, SPEE (β = .21) and SPOV (β = .27) were moderators of this relationship. The final models accounted for 12–24% of the variance in MVPA. The findings of this study suggest that self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation) may indeed relate to breast cancer survivors’ MVPA. In addition, social cognitive constructs (i.e., SPEE, SPOV) moderated the relationship between impression motivation and MVPA. It may be effective to target impression motivation, SPEE, and SPOV in interventions aimed at increasing MVPA among breast cancer survivors.
Jennifer Brunet and Catherine M. Sabiston
Catherine M. Sabiston and Peter R.E. Crocker
This study examined adolescent leisure-time physical activity correlates using the expectancy-value (EV) model. Adolescents (N = 857) completed questionnaires to assess competence and value self-perceptions, social influences, and physical activity. Direct and indirect effects of self-perceptions and parent and best friend influences on physical activity were explored using structural equation modeling. Measurement models were a good ft to the data and gender invariance was supported. The structural mediation model was a reasonable ft to the data, whereby the indirect effects of parents and peers and the direct effects of competence beliefs and values together accounted for 49% of the variance in physical activity. In this model, the pattern of relationships was similar for adolescent males and females. Findings supporting the EV model provide theoretical and practical implications for understanding adolescent physical activity.
Katya M. Herman, Catherine M. Sabiston, Angelo Tremblay and Gilles Paradis
Self-rated health (SRH) is a common indicator of health-related quality of life; however, little is known about SRH in children. This study explored the associations of physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SED), and BMI with SRH in children at risk for obesity.
Participants were 527 children aged 8–10 years in the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth study (inclusion criteria: ≥ 1 parent clinically obese). PA and SED were measured by accelerometer, specific SED behaviors by self-report, and height and weight measured.
About 40% of children were overweight or obese; 48% reported lessthan- excellent health. The odds of reporting less-than-excellent health were higher among obese girls (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4–5.2) and boys (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5–6.1) versus healthy weight children. Boys not meeting PA guidelines and boys in the lowest moderate-to-vigorous PA tertile were at 2 and 6 times higher odds of less-than-excellent SRH, respectively, versus more active boys. In girls, higher computer/video time and reading time were associated with higher and lower odds of less-than-excellent SRH, respectively.
Obesity is inversely associated with SRH in boys and girls, PA is positively associated with SRH in boys, and SED behaviors are associated with SRH in girls.
Jenna D. Gilchrist, David E. Conroy and Catherine M. Sabiston
This study examined how experienced and anticipated pride and shame were related to time spent training and effort expended toward training the following week. Participants (N = 158, 76% women; M age = 35.51, SD = 10.29 years) training for a marathon/half-marathon completed a weekly online questionnaire for 5 weeks leading up to a race. In the multilevel models, time spent training was positively predicted by race proximity, age, and effort expended that week. Effort expended toward training was predicted by the current week’s effort, the amount of time spent training that week, and was greater for participants who usually reported experiencing more pride than others. Neither anticipated pride or shame predicted time or effort, nor did experienced shame. The findings indicate that it is functional to foster high levels of pride when training for a long-distance race. Further work is needed to ascertain the relationship between anticipated emotions on goal-directed behavior.
Eva Pila, Angela Stamiris, Andree Castonguay and Catherine M. Sabiston
These three studies sought to better understand experiences of body-related envy and to examine the association with motivation and exercise behavior in young adult males and females. In an interview study, participants (N = 11) discussed body-related envy within a framework of social comparison. In Study 2, a thematic content analysis was conducted on self-reported narratives of body-related envy experiences reported by 288 participants. Themes of body-related envy triggers, cognitions, and cognitive and behavioral outcomes were identified. Findings from Studies 1 and 2 highlighted the possible link between body-related envy and exercise motivation and behavior. Study 3 tested these associations with males and females (N = 595) who completed a self-report questionnaire. In the structural equation model, body-related envy was positively associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations, and identified regulation was positively associated with exercise behavior. Taken together, the importance of body-related envy in the experience of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes related to sport and exercise contexts is highlighted.
Meghan H. McDonough, Catherine M. Sabiston and Sarah Ullrich-French
Physical activity experiences may contribute to psychological and social wellbeing among breast cancer survivors. The main purpose of the current study was to qualitatively explore the development of social relationships, social support, and posttraumatic growth among breast cancer survivors participating in a dragon boat program over 19 months. Guided by interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009), semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 breast cancer survivors on five occasions over their first two seasons of dragon boating. Narrative accounts were developed for each participant, and four profiles emerged describing processes of social and posttraumatic growth development over time: “developing a feisty spirit of survivorship,” “I don’t want it to be just about me,” “it’s not about the pink it’s about the paddling,” and “hard to get close.” Profiles were discussed in terms of developing social relationships and support, providing support to others, physicality and athleticism, and negative interactions and experiences.
Tanya M.F. Scarapicchia, Catherine M. Sabiston, Ross E. Andersen and Enrique Garcia Bengoechea
Young inactive healthy-weight females (n = 42) were randomly assigned to exercise at a self-selected pace on a treadmill beside a confederate who was providing either intrinsic or externally regulated verbal primes. Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), percentage of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and exercise continuance were recorded. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing mood pre- and postexercise session and postexercise motivational outcomes. The intrinsic motivation group reported higher RPE values after 8 min of exercise, had higher recorded HR measures at all 5 recorded time points, exercised at a higher %HR max, spent more time in MVPA, and were more likely to continue to exercise than participants in the externally regulated motivation group. A time effect was noted for vigor. Based on these findings, exercise motivation can be “contagious” through verbal primes, suggesting that exercising with or around intrinsically motivated individuals may have beneficial outcomes.
Jeffrey G. Caron, Gordon A. Bloom, Karen M. Johnston and Catherine M. Sabiston
The purpose of this study was to understand the meanings and lived experiences of multiple concussions in professional hockey players using hermeneutic, idiographic, and inductive approaches within an interpretative phenomenological analysis. The interviewer was an athlete who had suffered multiple concussions, and the interviewees were five former National Hockey League athletes who had retired due to medically diagnosed concussions suffered during their careers. The men discussed the physical and psychological symptoms they experienced as a result of their concussions and how the symptoms affected their professional careers, personal relationships, and quality of life. The former professional athletes related these symptoms to the turmoil that is ever present in their lives. These findings are of interest to athletes, coaches, sport administrators, family members, sport psychology practitioners, and medical professionals, as they highlight the severity of short- and long-term effects of concussions.
Katya M. Herman, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Catherine M. Sabiston, Marie-Eve Mathieu, Angelo Tremblay and Gilles Paradis
Individuals may achieve high physical activity (PA) yet also be highly sedentary (SED). This study assessed adiposity in children classified by PA/SED groups.
Participants were 520 8- to 10-year-old children with ≥ 1 obese parent. Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and SED were measured by accelerometer, and screen-time was measured by self-report. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF%), and VO2peak were objectively measured; energy intake was measured by dietary recall. Elevated adiposity was defined as BMI ≥ 85th percentile, WC ≥ 90th percentile, BF% ≥ 85th percentile, or waist-to-height ratio (WHR) ≥ 0.5.
Up to 27% of boys and 15% of girls were active/SED. Adiposity was lowest for active/non-SED, highest for inactive/SED, and intermediate and similar for active/SED and inactive/non-SED. Using 60 min/d MVPA and 2 h/d screen-time cut-offs, prevalence ranges for elevated adiposity in the active/non-SED, active/SED, inactive/non-SED, and inactive/SED groups were 0% to 14%, 15% to 44%, 16% to 40%, and 32% to 51%, respectively. Corresponding odds and 95% confidence intervals of being overweight/obese for the latter groups were 3.8 (95% CI, 1.7−8.4), 3.8 (1.8−8.2), and 4.9 (2.3−10.3) versus active/non-SED. PA/SED-adiposity associations were mediated by fitness but not energy intake.
Combined PA/SED levels are strongly associated with adiposity in children, but associations are mediated by fitness. Active children who accumulate >2 h/d of screen time and inactive children are equally likely to be overweight/obese.
Meghan H. McDonough, Catherine M. Sabiston, Whitney A. Sedgwick and Peter R.E. Crocker
Physical and psychosocial health risks are associated with both excess body weight and a sedentary lifestyle (National Institutes of Health [NIH], 1998). However, few researchers have focused on behavioral and motivational processes associated with exercise adoption and maintenance among overweight women. This study examined the efficacy of a team-based physical activity intervention on motivation and activity from a self-determination theory perspective. Overweight, inactive women (N=66) were randomly assigned to either a 12-week dragon boat program or a control condition. Participation in the dragon boat exercise was associated with increased intrinsic motivation and physical activity. Based on these data, the researchers suggest that this novel, team-based exercise intervention may improve motivation and activity levels in this at-risk population.