This study examined (1) the relationships between self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation and impression construction) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among breast cancer survivors, and (2) whether social cognitive constructs (i.e., self-presentational efficacy expectancy [SPEE]; self-presentational outcome expectancy [SPOE]; self-presentational outcome value [SPOV]) moderate these relationships. Breast cancer survivors (N = 169; M age = 55.06, SD = 10.67 years) completed self-report measures. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age and body mass index, indicated that impression motivation was a significant correlate of MVPA (β = .25). Furthermore, SPEE (β = .21) and SPOV (β = .27) were moderators of this relationship. The final models accounted for 12–24% of the variance in MVPA. The findings of this study suggest that self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation) may indeed relate to breast cancer survivors’ MVPA. In addition, social cognitive constructs (i.e., SPEE, SPOV) moderated the relationship between impression motivation and MVPA. It may be effective to target impression motivation, SPEE, and SPOV in interventions aimed at increasing MVPA among breast cancer survivors.
Jennifer Brunet and Catherine M. Sabiston
Catherine M. Sabiston and Peter R.E. Crocker
This study examined adolescent leisure-time physical activity correlates using the expectancy-value (EV) model. Adolescents (N = 857) completed questionnaires to assess competence and value self-perceptions, social influences, and physical activity. Direct and indirect effects of self-perceptions and parent and best friend influences on physical activity were explored using structural equation modeling. Measurement models were a good ft to the data and gender invariance was supported. The structural mediation model was a reasonable ft to the data, whereby the indirect effects of parents and peers and the direct effects of competence beliefs and values together accounted for 49% of the variance in physical activity. In this model, the pattern of relationships was similar for adolescent males and females. Findings supporting the EV model provide theoretical and practical implications for understanding adolescent physical activity.
Jenna D. Gilchrist, David E. Conroy, and Catherine M. Sabiston
This study examined how experienced and anticipated pride and shame were related to time spent training and effort expended toward training the following week. Participants (N = 158, 76% women; M age = 35.51, SD = 10.29 years) training for a marathon/half-marathon completed a weekly online questionnaire for 5 weeks leading up to a race. In the multilevel models, time spent training was positively predicted by race proximity, age, and effort expended that week. Effort expended toward training was predicted by the current week’s effort, the amount of time spent training that week, and was greater for participants who usually reported experiencing more pride than others. Neither anticipated pride or shame predicted time or effort, nor did experienced shame. The findings indicate that it is functional to foster high levels of pride when training for a long-distance race. Further work is needed to ascertain the relationship between anticipated emotions on goal-directed behavior.
Katya M. Herman, Catherine M. Sabiston, Angelo Tremblay, and Gilles Paradis
Self-rated health (SRH) is a common indicator of health-related quality of life; however, little is known about SRH in children. This study explored the associations of physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SED), and BMI with SRH in children at risk for obesity.
Participants were 527 children aged 8–10 years in the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth study (inclusion criteria: ≥ 1 parent clinically obese). PA and SED were measured by accelerometer, specific SED behaviors by self-report, and height and weight measured.
About 40% of children were overweight or obese; 48% reported lessthan- excellent health. The odds of reporting less-than-excellent health were higher among obese girls (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4–5.2) and boys (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5–6.1) versus healthy weight children. Boys not meeting PA guidelines and boys in the lowest moderate-to-vigorous PA tertile were at 2 and 6 times higher odds of less-than-excellent SRH, respectively, versus more active boys. In girls, higher computer/video time and reading time were associated with higher and lower odds of less-than-excellent SRH, respectively.
Obesity is inversely associated with SRH in boys and girls, PA is positively associated with SRH in boys, and SED behaviors are associated with SRH in girls.
Katie E. Gunnell, Jennifer Brunet, Catherine Sabiston, and Mathieu Bélanger
Despite research attention toward understanding relationships between psychological need satisfaction (PNS), moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), methodological limitations make it difficult to establish reciprocal and mediating effects. Reciprocal relationships between PNS and MVPA were examined over 4 years, and their effects on adolescents’ change in dimensions of HRQoL were examined. Self-reported data were collected from 932 adolescents (M age = 10.9 years) every 4 months beginning in Grades 5/6. At the between-persons and within-person level, earlier PNS predicted later MVPA whereas earlier MVPA did not predict later PNS. Increases in MVPA were associated with greater change in physical (βlinear = .61, βquadratic = .77, ps = .03) and school functioning (βlinear = .68, βquadratic = .84, ps = .03) but no other dimensions of HRQoL (p > .05). Decreases in PNS were not associated with any of the dimensions of HRQoL. Fostering adolescents’ PNS could be a starting point to increase MVPA, which, in turn, may enhance select dimensions of HRQoL.
Jennifer Brunet, Catherine Sabiston, Andree Castonguay, Leah Ferguson, and Natalia Bessette
The objectives of this study were to test the associations between physical self-discrepancies (actual:ideal and actual:ought) and physical activity behavior, and to examine whether motivational regulations mediate these associations using self-discrepancy (Higgins, 1987) and organismic integration (Deci & Ryan, 1985) theories as guiding frameworks. Young women (N = 205; M age = 18.87 years, SD = 1.83) completed self-report questionnaires. Main analyses involved path analysis using a polynomial regression approach, estimation of direct and indirect effects, and evaluation of response surface values. Agreement between actual and ideal (or ought) physical self-perceptions was related to physical activity both directly and indirectly as mediated by the motivational regulations (R 2 = .24–.30). Specifically, when actual and ideal self-perceptions scores were similar, physical activity levels increased as actual and ideal scores increased. Furthermore, physical activity levels were lower when the discrepancy was such that ideal or ought self were higher than actual self. These findings provide support for integrating self-discrepancy and organismic integration theories to advance research in this area.
Meghan H. McDonough, Catherine M. Sabiston, and Sarah Ullrich-French
Physical activity experiences may contribute to psychological and social wellbeing among breast cancer survivors. The main purpose of the current study was to qualitatively explore the development of social relationships, social support, and posttraumatic growth among breast cancer survivors participating in a dragon boat program over 19 months. Guided by interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009), semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 breast cancer survivors on five occasions over their first two seasons of dragon boating. Narrative accounts were developed for each participant, and four profiles emerged describing processes of social and posttraumatic growth development over time: “developing a feisty spirit of survivorship,” “I don’t want it to be just about me,” “it’s not about the pink it’s about the paddling,” and “hard to get close.” Profiles were discussed in terms of developing social relationships and support, providing support to others, physicality and athleticism, and negative interactions and experiences.
Eva Pila, Angela Stamiris, Andree Castonguay, and Catherine M. Sabiston
These three studies sought to better understand experiences of body-related envy and to examine the association with motivation and exercise behavior in young adult males and females. In an interview study, participants (N = 11) discussed body-related envy within a framework of social comparison. In Study 2, a thematic content analysis was conducted on self-reported narratives of body-related envy experiences reported by 288 participants. Themes of body-related envy triggers, cognitions, and cognitive and behavioral outcomes were identified. Findings from Studies 1 and 2 highlighted the possible link between body-related envy and exercise motivation and behavior. Study 3 tested these associations with males and females (N = 595) who completed a self-report questionnaire. In the structural equation model, body-related envy was positively associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations, and identified regulation was positively associated with exercise behavior. Taken together, the importance of body-related envy in the experience of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes related to sport and exercise contexts is highlighted.
Erin K. O’Loughlin, Catherine M. Sabiston, Erika N. Dugas, and Jennifer L. O’Loughlin
It is not known if or how exercise behavior regulations (EBRs) relate to exergaming in adolescents. The study objectives were 1) to determine if EBRs differ between adolescents who do and do not exergame; and 2) among exergamers, to describe the associations between EBRs and exergame duration, intensity, and achieving physical activity (PA) guidelines.
This study was a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in mailed self-report questionnaires completed by 1243 students (mean ± SDage = 16.8 ± 0.5 years; 43% boys).
In girls, those who exergamed scored higher than nonexergamers on introjected (mean ± SD = 1.9 ± 1.0 vs.1.6 ± 0.9; P = .001) and identified (mean ± SD = 3.1 ± .0 vs.2.9 ± 0.9; P = .049) regulation. Exergame intensity was associated with identified regulation [OR (95% CI) = 2.2 (1.0, 4.5)], minutes exergaming per week was associated with amotivation [β (95% CI) = 0.4 (−0.0, 0.8)], and achieving guidelines was associated with external [OR (95% CI) = 3.7 (1.0, 13.4)] and identified [OR (95% CI) = 5.6 (2.0, 16.0)] regulations. In boys who exergamed, intrinsic regulation was associated with exergame duration [β (95% CI) = −0.3 (−0.6, 0.0)].
Girls who exergame may have partially internalized exergaming as a PA behavior. Boys may prefer other types of PA such as team sports or other more traditional videogames over exergaming or they may not view exergaming as PA.
Amber D. Mosewich, Kent C. Kowalski, Catherine M. Sabiston, Whitney A. Sedgwick, and Jessica L. Tracy
Self-compassion has demonstrated many psychological benefits (Neff, 2009). In an effort to explore self-compassion as a potential resource for young women athletes, we explored relations among self-compassion, proneness to self-conscious emotions (i.e., shame, guilt-free shame, guilt, shame-free guilt, authentic pride, and hubristic pride), and potentially unhealthy self-evaluative thoughts and behaviors (i.e., social physique anxiety, obligatory exercise, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation). Young women athletes (N = 151; M age = 15.1 years) participated in this study. Self-compassion was negatively related to shame proneness, guilt-free shame proneness, social physique anxiety, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation. In support of theoretical propositions, self-compassion explained variance beyond self-esteem on shame proneness, guilt-free shame proneness, shame-free guilt proneness, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation. Results suggest that, in addition to self-esteem promotion, self-compassion development may be beneficial in cultivating positive sport experiences for young women.