Millennial college students are typically digital natives who prefer experiential and active learning. This preference is in contrast to the traditional lecture method of teaching in higher education. Flipped instruction provides instructors with a means to integrate technology into their courses and expand active-learning opportunities. In flipped courses, students engage with technology-assisted learning opportunities outside the classroom. Corresponding in-class active-learning opportunities encourage students to apply foundational knowledge. This article summarizes research and provides an authentic case example to illustrate the way in which flipped instruction was applied in a physical education teacher education course to expand learning opportunities in the field.
Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods
Chad M. Killian, Christopher J. Kinder and Amelia Mays Woods
Online and blended instruction have emerged as popular teaching methods in the K–12 environment. The asynchronous characteristics of these methods represent potential for improved learning opportunities in physical education. Therefore, the purpose of this scoping review was to provide a comprehensive overview of research, commentary, and practical articles related to the use of these methods in K–12 physical education. Method: PRISMA-ScR guidelines directed this review, and 5 databases were searched for English-language articles. Results: Twenty-four articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 were research-based and 10 were commentary or practical articles. Most related research has been conducted in secondary-school environments. Minimal learning-related outcomes were reported across studies. Evidence provided in commentary and practical articles is largely anecdotal and based on research from other subject areas. Conclusions: Systematic research related to the design, adoption, and implementation of online and blended instruction in physical education is warranted.
Ben D. Kern, Suzan F. Ayers, Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods
Background/Purpose: Student retention in physical education teacher education (PETE) programs is critical to promoting high-quality physical education in schools. This aspect of the current study was to investigate PETE program coordinators’ perceptions of their role in the process of retaining students within their programs. Method: Thirty-six PETE program coordinators (12 males and 24 females) completed in-depth interviews. The data were analyzed using a standard interpretative approach grounded in inductive analysis and constant comparison. Results: The PETE coordinators in this study perceived retention to be: (a) aligned with core job expectations, (b) grounded in relationships, (c) impacted by external and policy factors, and (d) limited by time and resources. Discussion/Conclusion: Retention in PETE is supported when faculty members utilize constructivist learning pedagogies and develop a sense of belonging among PETE students. Retention issues may be addressed through involvement with state policymakers and professional organizations.
K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian, Kim C. Graber and Ben D. Kern
The preceding chapters of this monograph have served to situate the study of physical education teacher education recruitment and retention within relevant literature and theory. This chapter outlines the sequential explanatory design methods, whereby participants in an online survey were selected using stratified random sampling to participate in follow-up interviews. The chapter opens with an overview of participant identification and recruitment. Participants were program coordinators drawn from a database that included contact information for physical education teacher education faculty members working at colleges and universities across the United States. Next, the participants in the quantitative and qualitative elements of the study are described, with attention to both individual and institutional factors. Survey design and content validity are discussed, as well as the development of a qualitative interview guide. The chapter concludes with a discussion of quantitative and qualitative data analysis strategies used to support the results presented in the subsequent chapters.
Ben D. Kern, K. Andrew R. Richards, Suzan F. Ayers and Chad M. Killian
Background/Purpose: Physical education teacher education (PETE) programs have experienced enrollment decline, leading some PETE faculty to consider increasing efforts to recruit new students to their programs. This aspect of the current study sought to investigate PETE program coordinators’ perceptions of possible causes for decreased PETE enrollments as well as their role in, and barriers to, recruiting preservice teachers. Methods: Thirty-six PETE program coordinators (12 males and 24 females) participated in in-depth interviews. The data were coded using a standard interpretative approach grounded in inductive analysis and constant comparison. Results: PETE faculty members perceived declining enrollments to be related to negative public perceptions of education, low-quality K-12 physical education, academically unprepared PETE students, and restructuring programs to emphasize other kinesiology areas. Though compelled to recruit, PETE coordinators questioned their responsibility to do so and reported lacking time and training to be effective. Discussion/Conclusions: PETE coordinators favor recruiting strategies that are less time-intensive and match their academic skill set.