Millennial college students are typically digital natives who prefer experiential and active learning. This preference is in contrast to the traditional lecture method of teaching in higher education. Flipped instruction provides instructors with a means to integrate technology into their courses and expand active-learning opportunities. In flipped courses, students engage with technology-assisted learning opportunities outside the classroom. Corresponding in-class active-learning opportunities encourage students to apply foundational knowledge. This article summarizes research and provides an authentic case example to illustrate the way in which flipped instruction was applied in a physical education teacher education course to expand learning opportunities in the field.
Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods
Chad M. Killian, Christopher J. Kinder, and Amelia Mays Woods
Online and blended instruction have emerged as popular teaching methods in the K–12 environment. The asynchronous characteristics of these methods represent potential for improved learning opportunities in physical education. Therefore, the purpose of this scoping review was to provide a comprehensive overview of research, commentary, and practical articles related to the use of these methods in K–12 physical education. Method: PRISMA-ScR guidelines directed this review, and 5 databases were searched for English-language articles. Results: Twenty-four articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 were research-based and 10 were commentary or practical articles. Most related research has been conducted in secondary-school environments. Minimal learning-related outcomes were reported across studies. Evidence provided in commentary and practical articles is largely anecdotal and based on research from other subject areas. Conclusions: Systematic research related to the design, adoption, and implementation of online and blended instruction in physical education is warranted.
Kim C. Graber, K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian, and Amelia Mays Woods
Purpose: Grounded in occupational socialization theory, the purpose of this investigation was to examine U.S. physical education teacher education faculty members’ work role preferences, how their actual work role responsibilities compare to institutional expectations, and differences in these preferences and responsibilities based on gender and institution type (i.e., bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral institutions). Methods: Participants included 323 physical education teacher education faculty members (188 females and 135 males) from 230 institutions of higher education who completed an online survey. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a series of 3 × 2 (Institution Type × Gender) factorial analysis of variances. Results: There was relative alignment between what faculty members are expected to do, what they prefer to do, and how they actually spend their time. There are, however, some important differences based on gender and institutional classification. Discussion/Conclusion: Results are discussed within the framework of occupational socialization theory and with reference to faculty role expectations and the propensity for role conflict.
K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian, Christopher J. Kinder, Kaizeen Badshah, and Casey Cushing
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate how U.S. physical educators who actively engage with professional content on Twitter view it as a platform for continuing professional development. Method: Thirty-two U.S.-based physical educators participated in semistructured telephone interviews. Most of these teachers were White (n = 29; 91.00%) and taught in elementary schools (n = 26; 81.25%). The data were coded inductively and deductively, using role socialization theory as the guiding framework. Results: Four themes were generated: (a) socialization into Twitter takes time and is often encouraged by existing members; (b) socialization through Twitter focuses on improving practices via the sharing of resources; (c) everyone has a voice on Twitter, but the content requires critical appraisal; and (d) teachers create a community on Twitter that addresses marginalization and isolation. Discussion/Conclusion: The participants used Twitter to develop a sense of professional community and reduce perceptions of isolation. Twitter has the potential to support the improvement of practice through grassroots continuing professional development.
Ben D. Kern, K. Andrew R. Richards, Suzan F. Ayers, and Chad M. Killian
Background/Purpose: Physical education teacher education (PETE) programs have experienced enrollment decline, leading some PETE faculty to consider increasing efforts to recruit new students to their programs. This aspect of the current study sought to investigate PETE program coordinators’ perceptions of possible causes for decreased PETE enrollments as well as their role in, and barriers to, recruiting preservice teachers. Methods: Thirty-six PETE program coordinators (12 males and 24 females) participated in in-depth interviews. The data were coded using a standard interpretative approach grounded in inductive analysis and constant comparison. Results: PETE faculty members perceived declining enrollments to be related to negative public perceptions of education, low-quality K-12 physical education, academically unprepared PETE students, and restructuring programs to emphasize other kinesiology areas. Though compelled to recruit, PETE coordinators questioned their responsibility to do so and reported lacking time and training to be effective. Discussion/Conclusions: PETE coordinators favor recruiting strategies that are less time-intensive and match their academic skill set.
K. Andrew R. Richards, Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, Shelby E. Ison, and Chad M. Killian
Purpose: To examine the workplace experience of physical education teacher educators while accounting for gender and institution type. Method: Participants included 286 U.S. faculty members (151 females and 135 males). Data were collected using an online survey that included measures of negative (i.e., marginalization, isolation, role stress, emotional exhaustion) and positive (i.e., perceived mattering, perceived organizational support) workplace experiences. Primary analyses began with a multivariate analysis of covariance followed up by univariate analyses of covariance to examine the differences in study variables based on gender and institution type. Results: Doctoral institution faculty members reported higher marginalization and lower perceived mattering and organizational support. Female faculty members reported higher role overload and emotional exhaustion. Discussion: Results highlight differences in the faculty experience across institution types as well as gender disparities. Recommendations are provided for improving the faculty experience as well as for future research in the area.
Chad M. Killian, Amelia Mays Woods, Kim C. Graber, and Thomas J. Templin
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with high school physical education (PE) teachers’ adoption of a supplemental online instructional system. Method: Semistructured, open-ended phone interviews with 28 high school PE teachers were used as the primary data collection method. All teachers were using or had used a supplemental online instructional system at the time of the study. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) guided the directed content analysis. Results: Four main categories were generated, including perceived programmatic, instructional, and inclusivity improvements; minimal personal and student usage effort; school and curriculum provider support facilitated use; and administrators’ dictated long-term use. Discussion/Conclusion: The results aligned well with the UTAUT and served to situate the theory within the secondary PE context. The participants’ perceptions and experiences were also contradictory to much of the current research on teachers’ technology adoption in PE and K–12 education, more generally.
Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, Chad M. Killian, K. Andrew R. Richards, and Jesse L. Rhoades
Purpose: The landscape of physical education has shifted in the 30 years since Metzler and Freedman’s seminal study examining the demographics of physical education teacher education faculty. Changes in the structure of physical education and academia justify an updated investigation, with particular emphasis on the gender and institutional affiliation of faculty. Methods: An expanded and validated version of Metzler and Freedman’s survey was e-mailed to 908 physical education teacher education faculty from 505 U.S. institutions. A response rate of 46.21% was achieved. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics to examine differences based on gender and institutional affiliation. Results: Gender salary disparities have decreased, whereas teaching experience and qualifications of faculty have increased. Corresponding increases in research productivity were notably evident. Discussion/Conclusion: Faculty members remain predominately European American, publication output has increased, more institutions are hiring nontenure-track faculty, and perceptions of support for physical education are lower than in 1985.
Ben D. Kern, Chad M. Killian, Douglas W. Ellison, Kim C. Graber, Elaine Belansky, and Nicholas Cutforth
The purpose of this study was to determine how the research intervention called Healthy Eaters, Lifelong Movers (HELM) and associated San Luis Valley Physical Education Academy (SLVPEA) influenced teachers’ beliefs about physical education and the extent to which they sustained pedagogical changes over time. Seventeen physical educators who completed the 2-year intervention were interviewed 3 years later, and data collected during HELM/SLVPEA using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time were analyzed to create an individual change profile. Mean difference of System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time variables at baseline and postintervention was analyzed using dependent, paired-samples t tests, treating each participant as a separate case. Qualitative data were analyzed using a standard interpretive approach and constant comparison methodology. Teachers made significant changes during HELM/SLVPEA and maintained these changes 3 years later. Their beliefs about physical education were altered, and many reported feeling less marginalized. The provision of resources along with ongoing site support facilitated changes in beliefs and practice.
Ben D. Kern, Suzan F. Ayers, Chad M. Killian, and Amelia Mays Woods
Background/Purpose: Student retention in physical education teacher education (PETE) programs is critical to promoting high-quality physical education in schools. This aspect of the current study was to investigate PETE program coordinators’ perceptions of their role in the process of retaining students within their programs. Method: Thirty-six PETE program coordinators (12 males and 24 females) completed in-depth interviews. The data were analyzed using a standard interpretative approach grounded in inductive analysis and constant comparison. Results: The PETE coordinators in this study perceived retention to be: (a) aligned with core job expectations, (b) grounded in relationships, (c) impacted by external and policy factors, and (d) limited by time and resources. Discussion/Conclusion: Retention in PETE is supported when faculty members utilize constructivist learning pedagogies and develop a sense of belonging among PETE students. Retention issues may be addressed through involvement with state policymakers and professional organizations.