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Expanding Learning Opportunities in Kinesiology Through the Use of Flipped Instruction

Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods

Millennial college students are typically digital natives who prefer experiential and active learning. This preference is in contrast to the traditional lecture method of teaching in higher education. Flipped instruction provides instructors with a means to integrate technology into their courses and expand active-learning opportunities. In flipped courses, students engage with technology-assisted learning opportunities outside the classroom. Corresponding in-class active-learning opportunities encourage students to apply foundational knowledge. This article summarizes research and provides an authentic case example to illustrate the way in which flipped instruction was applied in a physical education teacher education course to expand learning opportunities in the field.

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“Knock, Knock … Who’s There?” ChatGPT and Artificial Intelligence-Powered Large Language Models: Reflections on Potential Impacts Within Health and Physical Education Teacher Education

Chad M. Killian, Risto Marttinen, Donal Howley, Julia Sargent, and Emily M. Jones

This research note suggests the emergence of Artificial Intelligence-powered chatbots like ChatGPT pose challenges to the future of higher education. We as a field should pay attention to issues and opportunities associated with this technology across learning, teaching, and research spaces. We propose ignoring, or being indifferent to, predictions about what technologies like Artificial Intelligence-powered chatbots can do can cause us to do “dumb things.” All health and physical education teacher education faculty members should make efforts to learn about these tools to facilitate informed, solution-focused decisions about whether and where to leverage them. We highlight the importance of maintaining sociocritical perspectives when considering use of digital technologies to understand and address digital (in)equity and promote equitable practices. We conclude by emphasizing the need for field-specific consensus statements to guide ethical and appropriate use of Artificial Intelligence-powered chatbots, to ensure the value of these tools is harnessed for the good of the society. [Output by ChatGPT-3]

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Physical Education Participation and Student Anxiety, Depression, and/or Stress: A Scoping Review

Kacie V. Lanier, Chad M. Killian, Kathryn Wilson, and Rebecca Ellis

The purpose of this review was to identify and summarize research that has been conducted on the potential impact of physical education (PE) on students’ feelings of anxiety, depression, and stress. This review followed the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines. Twenty-seven articles were identified from four databases: Academic Search Complete, APA PsycInfo, ERIC, and SPORTDiscus. Key findings indicated caring, task-involved climates were more likely to be related to reduce feelings of anxiety, depression, and stress, while ego-involving climates were related to heightened symptoms of mental distress. This review demonstrated that participation in PE had an unclear relationship with students’ mental health. To improve the understanding of the relationship and potential impact of PE on students’ mental health, future researchers should apply more rigorous methods to account for environmental factors of the school, program characteristics, social influences, physical activity intensity, and the quality of PE programs.

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Online and Blended Instruction in K–12 Physical Education: A Scoping Review

Chad M. Killian, Christopher J. Kinder, and Amelia Mays Woods

Online and blended instruction have emerged as popular teaching methods in the K–12 environment. The asynchronous characteristics of these methods represent potential for improved learning opportunities in physical education. Therefore, the purpose of this scoping review was to provide a comprehensive overview of research, commentary, and practical articles related to the use of these methods in K–12 physical education. Method: PRISMA-ScR guidelines directed this review, and 5 databases were searched for English-language articles. Results: Twenty-four articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 were research-based and 10 were commentary or practical articles. Most related research has been conducted in secondary-school environments. Minimal learning-related outcomes were reported across studies. Evidence provided in commentary and practical articles is largely anecdotal and based on research from other subject areas. Conclusions: Systematic research related to the design, adoption, and implementation of online and blended instruction in physical education is warranted.

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Factors Associated With High School Physical Education Teachers’ Adoption of a Supplemental Online Instructional System (iPE)

Chad M. Killian, Amelia Mays Woods, Kim C. Graber, and Thomas J. Templin

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with high school physical education (PE) teachers’ adoption of a supplemental online instructional system. Method: Semistructured, open-ended phone interviews with 28 high school PE teachers were used as the primary data collection method. All teachers were using or had used a supplemental online instructional system at the time of the study. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) guided the directed content analysis. Results: Four main categories were generated, including perceived programmatic, instructional, and inclusivity improvements; minimal personal and student usage effort; school and curriculum provider support facilitated use; and administrators’ dictated long-term use. Discussion/Conclusion: The results aligned well with the UTAUT and served to situate the theory within the secondary PE context. The participants’ perceptions and experiences were also contradictory to much of the current research on teachers’ technology adoption in PE and K–12 education, more generally.

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Chapter 4: Studying Recruitment and Retention in PETE: Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods

K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian, Kim C. Graber, and Ben D. Kern

The preceding chapters of this monograph have served to situate the study of physical education teacher education recruitment and retention within relevant literature and theory. This chapter outlines the sequential explanatory design methods, whereby participants in an online survey were selected using stratified random sampling to participate in follow-up interviews. The chapter opens with an overview of participant identification and recruitment. Participants were program coordinators drawn from a database that included contact information for physical education teacher education faculty members working at colleges and universities across the United States. Next, the participants in the quantitative and qualitative elements of the study are described, with attention to both individual and institutional factors. Survey design and content validity are discussed, as well as the development of a qualitative interview guide. The chapter concludes with a discussion of quantitative and qualitative data analysis strategies used to support the results presented in the subsequent chapters.

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Chapter 6: Recruitment in PETE: Interview Results and Discussion

Ben D. Kern, K. Andrew R. Richards, Suzan F. Ayers, and Chad M. Killian

Background/Purpose: Physical education teacher education (PETE) programs have experienced enrollment decline, leading some PETE faculty to consider increasing efforts to recruit new students to their programs. This aspect of the current study sought to investigate PETE program coordinators’ perceptions of possible causes for decreased PETE enrollments as well as their role in, and barriers to, recruiting preservice teachers. Methods: Thirty-six PETE program coordinators (12 males and 24 females) participated in in-depth interviews. The data were coded using a standard interpretative approach grounded in inductive analysis and constant comparison. Results: PETE faculty members perceived declining enrollments to be related to negative public perceptions of education, low-quality K-12 physical education, academically unprepared PETE students, and restructuring programs to emphasize other kinesiology areas. Though compelled to recruit, PETE coordinators questioned their responsibility to do so and reported lacking time and training to be effective. Discussion/Conclusions: PETE coordinators favor recruiting strategies that are less time-intensive and match their academic skill set.

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Chapter 8: Retention in PETE: Interview Results and Discussion

Ben D. Kern, Suzan F. Ayers, Chad M. Killian, and Amelia Mays Woods

Background/Purpose: Student retention in physical education teacher education (PETE) programs is critical to promoting high-quality physical education in schools. This aspect of the current study was to investigate PETE program coordinators’ perceptions of their role in the process of retaining students within their programs. Method: Thirty-six PETE program coordinators (12 males and 24 females) completed in-depth interviews. The data were analyzed using a standard interpretative approach grounded in inductive analysis and constant comparison. Results: The PETE coordinators in this study perceived retention to be: (a) aligned with core job expectations, (b) grounded in relationships, (c) impacted by external and policy factors, and (d) limited by time and resources. Discussion/Conclusion: Retention in PETE is supported when faculty members utilize constructivist learning pedagogies and develop a sense of belonging among PETE students. Retention issues may be addressed through involvement with state policymakers and professional organizations.

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PETE Faculty Preferences and Responsibilities for Research, Teaching, and Service in the United States

Kim C. Graber, K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian, and Amelia Mays Woods

Purpose: Grounded in occupational socialization theory, the purpose of this investigation was to examine U.S. physical education teacher education faculty members’ work role preferences, how their actual work role responsibilities compare to institutional expectations, and differences in these preferences and responsibilities based on gender and institution type (i.e., bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral institutions). Methods: Participants included 323 physical education teacher education faculty members (188 females and 135 males) from 230 institutions of higher education who completed an online survey. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a series of 3 × 2 (Institution Type × Gender) factorial analysis of variances. Results: There was relative alignment between what faculty members are expected to do, what they prefer to do, and how they actually spend their time. There are, however, some important differences based on gender and institutional classification. Discussion/Conclusion: Results are discussed within the framework of occupational socialization theory and with reference to faculty role expectations and the propensity for role conflict.

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Chapter 4: Twitter as a Professional Development Platform Among U.S. Physical Education Teachers

K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian, Christopher J. Kinder, Kaizeen Badshah, and Casey Cushing

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate how U.S. physical educators who actively engage with professional content on Twitter view it as a platform for continuing professional development. Method: Thirty-two U.S.-based physical educators participated in semistructured telephone interviews. Most of these teachers were White (n = 29; 91.00%) and taught in elementary schools (n = 26; 81.25%). The data were coded inductively and deductively, using role socialization theory as the guiding framework. Results: Four themes were generated: (a) socialization into Twitter takes time and is often encouraged by existing members; (b) socialization through Twitter focuses on improving practices via the sharing of resources; (c) everyone has a voice on Twitter, but the content requires critical appraisal; and (d) teachers create a community on Twitter that addresses marginalization and isolation. Discussion/Conclusion: The participants used Twitter to develop a sense of professional community and reduce perceptions of isolation. Twitter has the potential to support the improvement of practice through grassroots continuing professional development.