This exploratory research investigation focused on the concept of human extensibility and sought to introduce the topic to the sport management literature. The purpose of this inquiry on human extensibility centered on attempting to better understand how professionalized sport facilities embrace communication technology to help virtual and remote spectators become extensible agents. The space-time path of both a high and low-identified sport fan was tracked through the creation of a Geographic Information System (GIS) based model to help explain the extensibility phenomenon. The GIS-based diagrams were established with the help of data collected from a space-time diary, video camera, and participant interviews. Professionalized sport facilities enjoy the space and ability to incorporate highly technical structures within their confines to help improve human extensibility, however, people must possess the resources (i.e., time and money), desire, and knowledge to exploit the technology. The researcher suggests future producers of sport products will benefit both publicly and financially with this emphasis. Finally, this research endeavor offers further discussion and predictions on newer technology emerging that professionalized sport facilities will or should likely embrace in the future to improve extensibility for all types of fans and to create, maintain, and/or secure greater fan identification.
The measurement of decisions requiring a comparison between alternatives could be improved for researchers because limitations exist with the more traditional survey techniques. To address this concern, the purpose of this review centered on discussing the merits of the forced-choice certainty method against those offered by single-stimulus Likert scale and forced-choice survey instruments. Few reviews have used the forced-choice certainty method to test topics which involve comparison and to gather accurate information on consumers, commercial products and services, and other important issues of public debate. This has occurred due to some negative literature on forced-choice surveys and preferences shown for the various reliability and validity statistics that can be easily produced with single-stimulus Likert-scale instruments. Ultimately, this work attempts to help researchers better understand the contribution that the forced-choice certainty method can make and showcase it as a product resulting from the merger of both forced-choice and Likert-scale instruments.
Matthew Katz and Chad Seifried
Chad Seifried and Donna Pastore
Patrick Tutka and Chad Seifried
The present study examines the early wooden facilities and grounds of American college football within National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision and Ivy League schools from 1869 through 1903. Within, we identify what set of events and opportunities led to the development of the earliest football playing spaces. Furthermore, we recognize and explain what patterns of construction and renovation influenced the creation of permanent stadia. Critical environmental conditions that impacted the spread of knowledge about football and its playing grounds are recognized in addition to specific rules, which influenced the evolution of fields and facilities. Finally, we recognize the importance of facility enclosure and interests in producing revenues, and feature discussion on the movement of games from off- to on-campus while offering a collective picture of what these places looked like as potential synedochial social anchors for their institutions.