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Aleksandra Luszczynska, Agnieszka Gregajtys and Charles Abraham

An intervention designed to enhance preaction self-efficacy beliefs (i.e., beliefs about ability to initiate behavior despite anticipated barriers during the initiation period) was tested in patients with spondylosis in relation to initiation of exercises recommended by a consultant in orthopedic rehabilitation. Sixty patients (age 28–83 years; 44% men) with spondylosis who had not previously performed exercises recommended for degenerative spine diseases were randomly assigned to a control (education session) or intervention group. Three weeks later, intervention patients performed recommended exercises more frequently than controls. Regression analysis for all patients showed that preintervention, preaction self-efficacy predicted exercise. Age and preintervention self-efficacy moderated the intervention effects. Among older patients, only those with weak preintervention, preaction self-efficacy beliefs benefited from the intervention, whereas among younger patients, only those with strong preintervention, preaction self-efficacy beliefs benefited from the intervention.

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Lisa Price, Katrina Wyatt, Jenny Lloyd, Charles Abraham, Siobhan Creanor, Sarah Dean and Melvyn Hillsdon

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess children’s compliance with wrist-worn accelerometry during a randomized controlled trial and to examine whether compliance differed by allocated condition or gender. Methods: A total of 886 children within the Healthy Lifestyles Programme trial were randomly allocated to wear a GENEActiv accelerometer at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Compliance with minimum wear-time criteria (≥10 h for 3 weekdays and 1 weekend day) was obtained for both time points. Chi-square tests were used to determine associations between compliance, group allocation, and gender. Results: At baseline, 851 children had usable data, 830 (97.5%) met the minimum wear-time criteria, and 631 (74.1%) had data for 7 days at 24 hours per day. At follow-up, 789 children had usable data, 745 (94.4%) met the minimum wear-time criteria, and 528 (67%) had complete data. Compliance did not differ by gender (baseline: χ2 = 1.66, P = .2; follow-up: χ2 = 0.76, P = .4) or by group at follow-up (χ2 = 2.35, P = .13). Conclusion: The use of wrist-worn accelerometers and robust trial procedures resulted in high compliance at 2 time points regardless of group allocation, demonstrating the feasibility of using precise physical activity monitors to measure intervention effectiveness.

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Lisa Price, Katrina Wyatt, Jenny Lloyd, Charles Abraham, Siobhan Creanor, Sarah Dean and Melvyn Hillsdon

Background: Physical activity guidelines state that children should achieve at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on each day of the week. Accurate assessment of adherence to these guidelines should, ideally, include measurement over 7 days. When less than 7 days of data are available, researchers often report the average minutes of MVPA per day as a proxy for 7-day measurement. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence estimates generated by average MVPA per day versus MVPA assessed over 7 days. Methods: Data were collected as part of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme. One class from each school was randomized to wear a GENEActiv accelerometer for 8 days. The percentages of children achieving an average of ≥60 minutes of MVPA per day and those achieving ≥60 minutes of MVPA on each of 7 days were calculated. Results: A total of 807 children provided 7 days of data. When the average MVPA per day was calculated, 30.6% (n = 247) of children accumulated ≥60 minutes of MVPA per day. Only 3.2% (n = 26) accumulated ≥60 minutes of MVPA on every day of the week. Conclusion: Previous studies utilizing average MVPA per day are likely to have overestimated the percentage of children meeting recommendations.