This study set out to determine the effect of a training program on the amount of academic learning time in physical education (ALT-PE) provided by student teachers. A treatment group/control group experimental design was used to test the effect of an intervention, and random selection was used in assigning subjects to either group. A total of 50 classes were observed. Descriptive analysis revealed that teachers in the treatment group produced more ALT-PE than teachers in the control group. Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests computed for this comparison showed that the distribution of ranks was significantly different (p<.01). Additional tests produced nonsignificant differences for the distribution of ranks within the variables of skill practice, game, management, and waiting (p>.01). However, the general trend of differences within these variables seemed to contribute to the overall provision of greater ALT-PE for the treatment group. These findings have some important implications for the implementation of theory into practice in the supervision of novice teachers.
Lynda E. Randall and Charles H. Imwold
Charles H. Imwold, Robert A. Rider and Dewayne J. Johnson
Charles H. Imwold, Robert A. Rider, Bernadette M. Twardy, Pamela S. Oliver, Michael Griffin and Donald N. Arsenault
The purpose of this study was to compare the teaching process interaction behavior of teachers who planned for classes with those who did not plan. Senior physical education majors served as the teaching subjects for this study—six in the planning (experimental) group and six in the no-plan (control) group. Each teacher taught the same lesson content for a 15-minute episode. The planning group spent 1 hour before the lesson writing explicit plans, while the control group was given 2 minutes just before the lesson to gather their thoughts and be informed of the content to be covered. The behaviors of all teachers were observed by the Cheffers Adaptation of the Flanders’ Interaction Analysis System (CAFIAS). The results indicated significant differences in only two interaction categories: amount of directions given and the amount of silence. Both variables were better for the planning group.
J. Vincent, Charles Imwold, J. T. Johnson and Dwayne Massey
This study was a comparison of how selected newspapers from Canada, Great Britain, and the United States reported on female athletes competing in four “gender-appropriate” sports with female athletes competing in four “gender-inappropriate” sports at the Centennial Olympic Games. The liberal feminist theoretical framework underpinning this study views equality of opportunity and individual liberty as an inevitable by-product of political, legal, and educational reform juxtaposed with a gradual social acceptance. Content Analysis was used to examine all the articles and photographs from the front pages and the sports sections of the newspapers. Based upon the data, female athletes competing in the “gender-appropriate” sports of swimming, gymnastics, tennis, and diving received more newspaper coverage than female athletes competing in the “gender-inappropriate” sports of soccer, softball, field hockey, and volleyball in terms of the average number of words per article and the average number of paragraphs per article. In addition, the “gender-appropriate” athletes were over-represented in the average number of photographs, the average number of photographs on the first page, and the average number of photographs on the top of the pages. Qualitative analyses of articles and photographs revealed a subtle but discernable amount of culturally stereotyped coverage.