Charles J. Hardy and Bibb Latané
Susan A. McDonald and Charles J. Hardy
This study examined the affective response pattern of severely injured athletes. Five athletes from an NCAA Division I university athletic program were followed within 24 hours of injury for 4 weeks. On two nonconsecutive days a week at the same time and place, the athletes completed the Profile of Mood States and indicated their perceived percent rehabilitation. In addition, at the first meeting the athletes were given the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and a demographic data sheet. At the final meeting the athletes completed an open-ended questionnaire designed to explore affective, cognitive, and behavioral reflections about rehabilitation. ANOVA indicated that affect significantly changed (p<.05) across the 4 week period. Post hoc analyses indicated that this change fits a two-stage process: Stage 1, Times 1−2; Stage 2, Times 3−8, with the two stages being significantly different from each other. The correlation between perceived rehabilitation and total mood disturbance was r=−.69, p<.0001. Correlations for each affective measure and perceived rehabilitation indicated that affective patterns of the rehabilitating athlete were highly related to the perception of rehabilitation, with negative affect diminishing and positive affect increasing as perceived rehabilitation increased.
Charles J. Hardy and Robert G. McMerray
Ten Type A's and 10 Type B's, as measured by the student version of the JAS and the TASRI, exercised on a cycle ergometer for 20 minutes at light (40% V02max), moderate (60% V02max), and high (80% V02max) intensity exercise to determine A/B differences in psychophysiological responses. The norepinephrine and epinephrine responses of A/B types were similar at the light and moderate intensities. However, at the high intensity, norepmephrine response of Type A's was significantly greater than that of Type B's. Epinephrine responses (p=.ll) evidenced the same, albeit nonsignificant, trend. Oxygen uptake and heart rate data indicated that this amine difference was not a function of differential workloads, suggesting that Type A's had a greater psychophysiological reactivity to high intensity exercise than Type B's. Ratings of perceived exertion were similar for Type A's and B's at all intensities. However, a significant interaction between behavioral pattern and intensity emerged for affect. Interpretation of this interaction indicated that Type A's were more positive than B's at light and moderate intensities, yet at the high intensity exercise A's were more negative than B's. The results of this study suggest that A and B types do differ in their psychophysiological responses during exercise, with A's evidencing more positive affect during light and moderate intensities, yet more negative affect and greater neuroendocrine responses during high intensity exercise than B's.
Charles J. Hardy and W. Jack Rejeski
Three experiments are presented that evaluate the feeling scale (FS) as a measure of affect during exercise. In Experiment 1,.subjects were instructed to check adjectives on the MAACL-R that they would associate with either a "good" or a "bad" feeling during exercise. As predicted, discriminant function analysis indicated that the good/bad dimension of the FS appears to represent a core of emotional expression. In Experiment 2, subjects rated how they felt during exercise at a rate of perceived exertion (RPE) of 11, 15, and 19. There was considerable heterogeneity in FS for each given RPE. Moreover, RPEs and FS ratings were only moderately correlated, r= - .56, suggesting that phenomenologically the two constructs are not isomorphic. Experiment 3 involved three 4-min bouts of exercise at 30, 60, and 90% V02max. Assessed were pre- and post-exercise affect as. .well as RPEs, responses to the FS, Ve, RR, and VO2. Results revealed that RPE and the FS were moderately related, but only at easy and hard workloads. FS ratings evidenced greater variability as metabolic demands increased, and RPEs consistently had stronger ties to physiologic cues than responses to the FS. The theoretical and pragmatic implications of these data are discussed.
Charles J. Hardy and Robert Kelly Crace
Previous research has demonstrated that the difference between a group's potential and its actual productivity is, in part, a function of individuals exerting less effort when working as a team. This phenomenon has been labeled social loafing. Harkins and Petty (1982) have suggested that the way in which teammates think their outputs are combined to make up the team score and teammate competence may influence the social loafing effect. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of additive, disjunctive, and conjunctive task structures on individual effort expended by rowers and nonrowers. In Experiment 1, 30 male nonrowers were assigned to dyads and performed two (alone, team) 45-sec trials on Concept II rowing ergometers. Ten subjects performed under additive, 10 under disjunctive, and 10 under conjunctive task conditions. Results demonstrated no significant effects. In Experiment 2, 30 subjects were assigned to 15 dyads with the restriction that 1 member of each dyad be a collegiate rower and 1 be a nonrower. The results revealed (a) that rowers expended more effort than nonrowers and (b) a social loafing effect for the least proficient teammate.
Robert J. Brustad, Thomas E. Deeter and Charles J. Hardy
Lawrence B. Rosenfeld, Jack M. Richman and Charles J. Hardy
The purpose of this investigation was twofold: first, to describe the social support networks of athletes with respect to who provides what types of support and in what perceived amounts, and second, to compare the support networks of low- and high-stressed athletes. Results indicated that social support is provided by coaches, teammates, friends, and parents, and that each makes a unique contribution to the athletes’ social support network. Coaches and teammates were identified as providing types of support requiring expertise in sports, and friends and parents were identified as providing complementary types of support not requiring such expertise. Few differences were found between the social support networks of low- and high-stressed athletes.
Charles J. Hardy, Jack M. Richman and Lawrence B. Rosenfeld
This study examined the role of social support in the relationship between life stress and injury. Utilizing a prospective design, male and female collegiate athletes participating in the sports of volleyball, gymnastics, field hockey, soccer, cross-country, track and field, and wrestling completed the Athletic Life Experience Survey and the Support Functions Questionnaire. The results indicated that life stress and social support were predictive of injury frequency among male athletes. Specifically, injury frequency increased as the level of total life change and the number of providers of shared social reality support increased (direct effect). In addition, injury frequency was found to increase as negative life change and the number of providers of, and degree of fulfillment for, emotional challenge support decreased (buffer effect). No significant models emerged for female athletes or injury severity. The results of this study support a functional or disaggregated role for social support in the life stress/injury relationship.