Background: Little is known about variation in meeting the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines (including physical activity [PA], sleep, and screen time [ST]) in early childhood. The aim was to evaluate sociodemographic differences in meeting the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. Methods: Parents of 3–4 year old children reported sociodemographic information and ST. Sleep and PA were measured using accelerometry, and height and weight were objectively measured. The 24-Hour Movement Guidelines include daily PA (total PA: ≥3 h; including ≥1 h of moderate to vigorous), sleep (10–13 h), and ST (≤1 h). Meeting guidelines by age, sex, race, poverty level, and weight status were assessed using chi-square and linear regression models. Results: Of 107 children, 57% were white and 26% lived in households at or below the poverty level. Most children met the PA (91.5%) and sleep (86.9%) guidelines, but few met ST (14.0%) or all 3 (11.3%) guidelines. African American children and children who lived at or below the poverty level were less likely to meet the sleep, ST, and all 3 guidelines compared with others (P < .01 for all). There were no other differences. Conclusion: These results suggest future interventions should focus on reducing differences in movement, namely in sleep and ST.
Chelsea L. Kracht, Elizabeth K. Webster and Amanda E. Staiano
Chelsea L. Kracht, Susan B. Sisson, Emily Hill Guseman, Laura Hubbs-Tait, Sandra H. Arnold, Jennifer Graef and Allen Knehans
Background/Context: Children without siblings (singletons) have higher rates of obesity than do children with siblings (nonsingletons). Higher moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) and less sedentary behavior (SB) are associated with lower childhood obesity. Purpose: To examine the difference in PA and SB between singleton and nonsingleton children. Methods: Mothers of children ages 5.0–7.9 years old who were singletons or nonsingletons with a sibling between the ages of 2.0 and 4.9 years old were recruited. Height, weight, and waist circumference of the 5.0- to 7.9-year-old children were measured, and age and sex percentiles were calculated. Accelerometry measured SB and PA, including light PA, moderate to vigorous PA, and counts per minute. Results: Fifty-six mother–child dyads (23 singletons and 33 nonsingletons) with an average child age of 5.7 (0.7) years participated. More singletons were classified as overweight or obese than were nonsingletons (49% vs 17%, P = .04). In adjusted linear models, singletons had less light PA per day (β = −38.1, SE = 19.2, P = .001) and more SB (β = 38.0, SE = 16.5, P = .02) than did nonsingletons, with no difference in moderate to vigorous PA or counts per minute. Conclusion: In this sample, singletons had higher obesity and lower light PA than did nonsingleton children. Investigation into differences in singleton/nonsingleton families, including family health behaviors, may help assess sibling influence in early behavior development.